activity : indicator-us-surface-temperature-process-2021



* The average temperature for the baseline period of 1901-2000 was calculated
* The difference between the annual temperature and the baseline temperature were calculated for each year to produce a time series of temperature “anomalies”. The period of 1901-2000 was chosen because it is easily recognizable and fixed in time. It should be noted that the choice of baseline period will not affect the shape or the statistical significance of the overall trend in anomalies, it only moves the trend up or down on the graph in relation to the point defined as “zero.”

* Values were plotted as bars for each year, colored red for above average temperatures and blue for below average temperatures * The baseline was labeled as "1901-2000 average" and labels indicating warmer or cooler temperatures were added to the y-axis

Methodology Contact: Derek Arndt, NOAA NCEI


How the source was modified: Average annual temperature data (in degrees Fahrenheit) for the contiguous U.S. were used, downloaded from

The duration of this activity was 2 hours.

Interim artifacts generated by this activity :
Output artifacts generated by this activity :

Computing environment : Mac OS Version 11.2.3, Windows 10

Software used : Microsoft Excel

Visualization software used : SigmaPlot,Adobe Photoshop

Data Bounding

The input object was time bounded starting from January 01, 1895 (00:00 AM)

The input object was time bounded ending at December 31, 2020 (00:00 AM)

The input object was bounded spatially:

This activity resulted in the following :

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