dataset : NOAA-ESRL Trends in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide, Globally averaged marine surface monthly mean data

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Earth System Research Laboratory


NOAA-ESRL Trends in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide, Globally averaged marine surface monthly mean data

These data are made freely available to the public and the scientific community in the belief that their wide dissemination will lead to greater understanding and new scientific insights. The availability of these data does not constitute publication of the data. NOAA relies on the ethics and integrity of the user to ensure that ESRL receives fair credit for their work. If the data are obtained for potential use in a publication or presentation, ESRL should be informed at the outset of the nature of this work. If the ESRL data are essential to the work, or if an important result or conclusion depends on the ESRL data, co-authorship may be appropriate. This should be discussed at an early stage in the work. Manuscripts using the ESRL data should be sent to ESRL for review before they are submitted for publication so we can ensure that the quality and limitations of the data are accurately represented. The uncertainty in the global monthly mean is estimated using a monte carlo technique that computes 100 globally-averaged time series, each time using a slightly different set of measurement records from the NOAA ESRL cooperative air sampling network. The reported uncertainty, 0.13 ppm, is the mean of the standard deviations for each monthly mean using this technique. Please see Conway et al., 1994, JGR, vol. 99, no. D11. for a complete discussion. Units are ppm. CO2 expressed as a mole fraction in dry air, micromol/mol, abbreviated as ppm. NOTE: In general, the data presented for the last year are subject to change, depending on recalibration of the reference gas mixtures used, and other quality control procedures. Occasionally, earlier years may also be changed for the same reasons. Usually these changes are minor.


When citing this dataset please refer to Dr. Pieter Tans, NOAA/ESRL ( and Dr. Ralph Keeling, Scripps Institution of Oceanography (

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