People


Name ORCID Organizations Publications
Dominik Kulakowski 0000-0002-7576-3569 Clark University Graduate School of Geography Large carbon release legacy from bark beetle outbreaks across Western United States
Abraham Kulangara Association of State and Territorial Health Officials 3rd National Climate Assessment Feedback Report. Reference Number 2011-0059
Ranjani Wasantha Kulawardhana 0000-0001-7918-7514 Texas A&M University Department of Ecosystem Science and Management Historical reconstruction of mangrove expansion in the Gulf of Mexico: Linking climate change with carbon sequestration in coastal wetlands
Kathy Kuletz U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Fluxes, Fins, and Feathers: Relationships Among the Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort Seas in a Time of Climate Change
Robert J. Kuligowski NOAA Satellite, Data, and Information Service Center for Satellite Applications and Research Satellite sub-pixel rainfall variability
Manisha A. Kulkarni 0000-0002-5084-4960 University of Ottawa School of Epidemiology and Public Health Anticipating the international spread of Zika virus from Brazil
Christian A. Kull 0000-0002-7516-7898 Monash University School of Geography and Environmental Science Fire in the Earth System
Jaakko Kullberg Poleward shifts in geographical ranges of butterfly species associated with regional warming
Markku Kulmala 0000-0003-3464-7825 University of Helsinki Department of Physics Global observations of aerosol–cloud–precipitation–climate interactions
Andrew Kulmatiski 0000-0001-9977-5508 Utah State University Department of Plants, Soils and Climate Woody plant encroachment facilitated by increased precipitation intensity
Scott Kulp 0000-0003-1435-7943 Climate Central Carbon choices determine US cities committed to futures below sea level Consequences of twenty-first-century policy for multi-millennial climate and sea-level change Rapid escalation of coastal flood exposure in US municipalities from sea level rise Evolving understanding of Antarctic ice‐sheet physics and ambiguity in probabilistic sea‐level projections
Michio Kumagai 0000-0002-0648-3061 Ritsumeikan University Rapid and highly variable warming of lake surface waters around the globe
Arun Kumar National Weather Service Climate Prediction Center National Weather Service Environmental Modeling Center National Weather Service National Centers for Environmental Prediction Annual Cycle of Pacific–North American Seasonal Predictability Associated with Different Phases of ENSO Robustness of the nonlinear climate response to ENSO’s extreme phases Hurricanes and Climate: The U.S. CLIVAR Working Group on Hurricanes A retrospective assessment of National Centers for Environmental Prediction climate model–based ensemble hydrologic forecasting in the western United States Causes of the 2011–14 California drought Anatomy of an Extreme Event Why Did Large Differences Arise in the Sea Surface Temperature Datasets across the Tropical Pacific during 2012? The making of an extreme event: Putting the pieces together Atmospheric Response Patterns Associated with Tropical Forcing Causes and predictability of the 2012 Great Plains drought
Devashish Kumar 0000-0003-1495-5089 Northeastern University Sustainability and Data Sciences Laboratory Regional and seasonal intercomparison of CMIP3 and CMIP5 climate model ensembles for temperature and precipitation
Emani Kumar ICLEI Local Governments for Sustainability Meta-principles for developing smart, sustainable, and healthy cities
Naresh Kumar Electric Power Research Institute EPRI Indian Agricultural Research Institute Centre for Environment Science and Climate Resilient Agriculture How do various maize crop models vary in their responses to climate change factors? Climatic effects of 1950-2050 changes in US anthropogenic aerosols - Part 1: Aerosol trends and radiative forcing Climatic effects of 1950–2050 changes in US anthropogenic aerosols – Part 2: Climate response
Ravind Kumar Fiji Meteorological Service An updated assessment of trends and variability in total and extreme rainfall in the western Pacific
Roselyn Kumar 0000-0002-3940-0488 University of the South Pacific Pacific Studies Culturally grounded responses to coastal change on islands in the Federated States of Micronesia, northwest Pacific Ocean
Sanjiv Kumar Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies North American Climate in CMIP5 Experiments. Part II: Evaluation of Historical Simulations of Intraseasonal to Decadal Variability Intermodel variability and mechanism attribution of central and southeastern U.S. anomalous cooling in the twentieth century as simulated by CMIP5 models North American climate in CMIP5 experiments: Part III: Assessment of twenty-first-century projections
Soora Naresh Kumar Indian Agricultural Research Institute Centre for Environment Science and Climate Resilient Agriculture Similar estimates of temperature impacts on global wheat yield by three independent methods Rising temperatures reduce global wheat production
Christian D. Kummerow Colorado State University Department of Atmospheric Science The Global Precipitation Measurement Mission
Michaël Kummert 0000-0003-1606-8344 Polytechnique Montreal Department of Mechanical Engineering Designing net-zero energy buildings for the future climate, not for the past
Lee Kump The Pennsylvania State University Department of Geosciences The Geological Record of Ocean Acidification
Zbigniew W. Kundzewicz Polish Academy of Sciences Institute for Agricultural and Forest Environment Polish Academy of Sciences Research Centre for Agricultural and Forest Environment Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research Integrating risks of climate change into water management Climate change impacts on the hydrological cycle CLIMATE CHANGE: Stationarity Is Dead: Whither Water Management? Coping with variability and change: Floods and droughts
Kenneth E. Kunkel 0000-0001-6667-7047 Cooperative Institute for Climate and Satellites Cooperative Institute for Climate and Satellites - NC Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies Desert Research Institute Division of Atmospheric Sciences Illinois State Water Survey Midwestern Climate Center Midwestern Regional Climate Center National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Centers for Environmental Information NCEI National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Climatic Data Center North Carolina State University University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Department of Atmospheric Sciences 8.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 23.1: Monitoring Precipitation Across the Southern Great Plains 35.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 44.4a: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 35.2d: Observed Winter Precipitation 35.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 24.2a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 29.4: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 16.3d-2: Observed Summer Precipitaton 31.4b: Observed Annual Precipitation 1.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 33.3a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 50.4a-1: Observed Winter Temperature 16.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 14.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 24.2d: Observed Summer Precipitation 49.8: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 24.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 49.5: Observed Annual Precipitation 50.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 7.7: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 50.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 5.2a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 33.22: Projected Summertime Precipitation Changes Detection and attribution of climate extremes in the observed record 28.9: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 21.2b: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events A5.10: Observed and Projected Changes in Global Temperature 10.5: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 22.2: Projected Changes in Very Hot Days, Cool Days, and Heavy Precipitation 17.4: Projected Change in Number of Days Over 95°F 50.5: End of Season Snow Water Equivalent Depth at Lewis Lake Divide 16.6: Kansas Palmer Drought Severity Index 18.2: Projected Mid-Century Temperature Changes in the Midwest 31.4b: Observed Annual Precipitation 41.3c: Observed Annual Precipitation 32.2d: Observed Annual Precipitation 5bd64870-4e8e-45cb-9b2c-83c52f5af397 2.27: Ice Cover in the Great Lakes 48.2: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 2d6fb90b-7d3d-4fce-8f63-36459f80d366 23.2a: Observed Number of Hot Days 8.1: Projected Change in Soil Moisture, End of Century, Higher Emissions 3.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 29.6: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level Recent increases in U.S. heavy precipitation associated with tropical cyclones 1.8: 1700 Years of Global Temperature Change from Proxy Data 44.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 51.8: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 19.3: Projected Change in Number of Warm Nights 20.3: Observed and Projected Temperature Change for Puerto Rico 49.4: Ice Cover on Lake Mendota 18.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 44.6: Annual Average Water Levels in the Great Salt Lake at Saltair Boat Harbor 31.4c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events nca3 chapter 34 : Appendix 4: Frequently Asked Questions 36.6: Oklahoma Palmer Drought Severity Index 15.2d: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 33.4: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 17.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 46.4: Observed Summer Temperature 5.2b: Observed Annual Precipitation 5.6: Storage Levels in the Shasta Dam Reservoir 41.2b: Observed Summer Temperature 6.5b: Observed Annual Precipitation usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016 Appendix 1: Technical Support Document 4.2b: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 39.2: Observed Number of Hot Days 14.7: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation -.6: Extreme Precipitation Has Increased Across Much of the United States 39.5: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation A5.11: Comparison of Climate Models and Observed Temperature Change 1.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 35.2b: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 33.2b: Observed Summer Temperature 21.3: Drying Effect of Warmer Air on Plants and Soils 4.3: Increasing Numbers of Cooling Degree Days 37.4c: Observed Annual Precipitation c8484765-3d50-48dc-a2e3-09cb56610265 8.6: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 28.6: Lake Mead Elevation at Hoover Dam 15.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 36.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 28.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 6.5: Projected Changes in Key Climate Variables Affecting Agricultural Productivity 21.2a: Observed Number of Hot Days 2.8: Projected Temperature Change 43.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 11.9: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 43e4c69f-2e48-4edc-ad0b-c0508a35f6d7 16.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 22cf98ca-20af-4fc0-ba4d-ef7234aa5be5 26.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 29.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 48.7: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 20.4: Projected Precipitation Change for Puerto Rico 45.2c-a: Observed Summer Temperature 43.4b: Observed Annual Precipitation 13.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 18.6: When it Rains, it Pours 31.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 34.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Days 39.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 27.3b: Observed Number or Warm Nights 5.7: California Palmer Drought Severity Index Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 7. Climate of Alaska. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-7 20.2b: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 14.3: Growing Season Lengthens 26.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Days 19.2a-1: Observed Winter Temperature 1.5: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 20.2c: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 7.7: Projected Change in Daily, 20-year Extreme Precipitation 36.3c: Observed Annual Precipitation 40.4: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 18.2e: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 3.2a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 27.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 39.3d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 25.3d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 43.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 19.2: Historical Change in Freeze-Free Season Length Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 9. Climate of the Contiguous United States. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-9 6.7: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 7.2a: Observed Number of Hot Days 1.2d: Total Hurricane Events in Alabama, 1900-2013 13.4b: Observed Summer Precipitaton Synthesis of public water supply use in the United States: Spatio-temporal patterns and socio-economic controls 25.3c: Observed Annual Precipitation 14.2d-1: Observed Spring Precipitaton 20.5: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation nca4 chapter 21 : Midwest 18.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 34.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 26.5: End of Season Snow Water Equivalent Depth at Noisy Basin 9.2d: Total Hurricane Events in Florida, 1900-2013 22.2b: Observed Number of Warm Nights 48.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights The Nature and Impacts of the July 1999 Heat Wave in the Midwestern United States: Learning from the Lessons of 1995 Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 8. Climate of the Pacific Islands. U.S. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-8 1.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 36.3a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 32.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 46.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 1.3: Projected Changes in U.S. Annual Average Temperatures 8.2b: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 12.5: Observed Annual Precipitation 34.2: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 10.2c: Observed Summer Precipitation climate-science-special-report chapter 15 : Potential Surprises: Compound Extremes and Tipping Elements 39.7: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 23.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 2.6: Observed and Projected Change in Heavy Precipitation 7.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 6.5a: Observed Number of Warm Nights 5.8: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 2.11: Projected Changes in Frost-Free Season Length nca3 chapter 33 : Appendix 3: Climate Science Supplement 25.9: Projected Shift in Agricultural Zones 35.4: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 21.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 21.10: Historical and Projected Annual Number of Days Above 100°F for Chicago 31.2: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 28.5: Nevada Palmer Drought Severity Index 38.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 16.2b: Observed Summer Temperature 2.9: Projected Temperature Change by 2071-2099 (CMIP5 models) 4f071049-4952-4e2b-ac40-9942a7752382 35.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 19.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 18.7: Ice Cover in the Great Lakes 5.9: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 28.4: Observed Annual Precipitation 44.5: Utah Palmer Drought Severity Index climate-science-special-report chapter 8 : Droughts, Floods, and Wildfires 46.2b: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights a7c5f0aa-db53-4965-bd56-88e8f7a87a89 35.2e: Observed Summer Precipitation 33.3b: Observed Annual Precipitation A preliminary synthesis of modeled climate change impacts on U.S. regional ozone concentrations 26.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 1.2d: Total Hurricane Events in Alabama 8.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 31.4c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation 24.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 18.2c-1: Observed Spring Precipitation beed84d6-d0f9-4c33-a8d3-808ed6eb6e3b 22.2a: Observed Number of Hot Days 17.2a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 17.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 13.3c: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 17.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 15.2b: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 006264b2-8594-4e09-9430-a1d0cc056ff7 18.2c: Observed Spring Precipitation 21.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 10.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 8.4: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 22.2d: Observed Annual Precipitation 45.4: Observed Annual Precipitation 19.2a-2: Observed Summer Temperature 18.5: Total Hurricane Events in Louisiana 1.4: Projected Global Temperatures 49.2d-1: Observed Winter Precipitation A5.20: Extreme Temperature and Precipitation Events 38.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 8.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 27.2b: Observed Summer Temperature Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 6. Climate of the Northwest U.S. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-6 20.2d: Observed Annual Precipitation 2.13: Annual Maximum Precipitation and Changes in Consecutive Dry Days 32.2c: Observed Number of Warm Nights The response of Great Lakes water levels to future climate scenarios with an emphasis on Lake Michigan-Huron 24.4: Observed Summer Temperature 24.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 18.2d: Observed Fall Precipitation 27.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 18.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 29.2a: Observed Number of Hot Days fe1ad9b9-3516-4623-aa66-4956ceec6891 1a061197-95cf-47bd-9db4-f661c711a174 2.8: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 41.3a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 37.5: End of Season Snow Water Equivalent Depth at Mt. Hood 14.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 31.4a: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 38.2b: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 19.4: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 12.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 48.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 44.4a: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 5.2c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 33.6: Observed and Projected Change in Global Sea Level 7.5: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 7.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 26.4b: Observed Summer Temperature 9.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days Probable maximum precipitation and climate change 45.5: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 2. Climate of the Southeast U.S. NOAA Technical Report 142-2 2.7: Observed U.S. Temperature Change 18.8: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 23.4: Observed Annual Precipitation Trends and extremes in Northern Hemisphere snow characteristics A5.18: Short-Term Variability Versus Long-Term Trend 1.4: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation A5.14: Temperature Change Varies by Region 25.2a: Observed Summer Temperature 24.7: Projected Change in Summer Precipitation 30.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 21.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 41.5: Annual Snowfall Totals at Menno 49.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 47.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 26.4a: Observed Winter Temperature 19.2b: Observed Number of Hot Days 18.7: Projected Change in Summer Precipitation 36.3b: Observed Number of Extremely Warm Nights 40.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 41.2a: Observed Winter Temperature 19.5: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 21.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 44.7: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016 chapter 1 : Climate Change and Human Health 46.6: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 19.4: Projected Change in Number of Heavy Precipitation Days 2.15: Newer Simulations for Projected Precipitation Change (CMIP5 models) 1.2: Global Land and Ocean Temperature Anamolies Monitoring and Understanding Trends in Extreme Storms: State of Knowledge 33.3c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 34.5: Observed Annual Precipitation 9.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 3.5: Observed Monsoon Season Precipitation 34.6: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 15.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events -.4: Significantly More Warming Occurs Under Higher Greenhouse Gas Concentration Scenarios 4.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 29.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 30.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 2.5: Projected Change in Average Annual Temperature 5.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 3.3: Observed Number of Extremely Warm Nights 50.4b: Observed Number of Very Cold Days 10.2a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 44.4d: April 1 Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) at Ben Lomond Peak, UT 36.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 18.7: Projected Change in Summer Precipitation 1.9: Proxy Temperature Reconstructions 2.17: Observed Change in Very Heavy Precipitation 33.5: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 42.4: Observed Annual Precipitation 31.5: Storage Levels in Elephant Butte Reservoir 7.8: Change in the Number of Days Within Precipitation Percentile Intervals 1.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 1.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 33.21: Projected Wintertime Precipitation Changes 31.5: Storage Levels in the Elephant Butte Reservoir 42.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 17.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change Effects of ocean warming on growth and distribution of dinoflagellates associated with ciguatera fish poisoning in the Caribbean 3.7: Lake Mead Water Level at Hoover Dam cfafefc7-f04f-4cb3-8e7e-2978c92e2ae4 2.14: Projected Precipitation Change by Season 39.3b: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 20.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 12.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 44.4c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 7.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 13.3b: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 50.4d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 28.2: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 44.4d: April 1 Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) at Ben Lomond Peak, UT 2.4: Observed and Projected Changes in Annual Average Temperature 47.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 40.5: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 26.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 40.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 19.3: Historical Change in Heavy Precipitation 32.2a-2: Observed Summer Temperature 44.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 30.7: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 16.3c: Observed Annual Precipitation 34.12: Measurements of Surface Temperature and Sun’s Energy 47.7: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 4.4: Projected Changes in Seasonal Precipitation 43.4c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 31.7: New Mexico Palmer Drought Severity Index 44.2: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 13.2b: Observed Summer Temperature 18.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 27.6: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 14.4: Observed Annual Precipitation 24.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 3.2b-1: Observed Maximum Summer Temperature 48.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change Trends in Twentieth-Century U.S. Snowfall Using a Quality-Controlled Dataset 20.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 9.6: Projected Change in Summer Precipitation 19.5: Projected Number of Warm Nights 25.1: Temperature Has Increased Across the Southwest 25.10: Projected Increases in Extreme Heat 33.3c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 35.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 32.6: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 4.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 27.3a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 4.2a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 49.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Days 19.4: Historical Number of Warm Nights 21.7: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 33.3b: Observed Annual Precipitation Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 5. Climate of the Midwest U.S. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-5 45.2a: Observed Number of Hot Days 39.3c: Observed Annual Precipitation 1.3: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events Indicator: Heavy Precipitation 45.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 45.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 46.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 18.5: Total Hurricane Events in Louisiana 38.6: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 30.2b: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 40.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 20.7: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 4.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 34.23: Emissions Levels Determine Temperature Rises 16.3a: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights nca4 chapter A5 : Appendix 5: Frequently Asked Questions 41.3d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 13.6: Annual Lake-Wide Average Water Levels for Lake Michigan-Huron Observational- and model-based trends and projections of extreme precipitation over the contiguous United States 38.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change Trends in Twentieth-Century U.S. Extreme Snowfall Seasons 24.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 5.2d: Observed Winter Precipitation 27.3c: Observed Annual Precipitation 42.2: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 13.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 46.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 6.2a: Observed Spring Temperature nca4 chapter A3 : Appendix 3: Data Tools and Scenario Products 34.9: Decade-Scale Changes in Average Temperature for U.S. Regions 50.4a-2: Observed Summer Temperature Temporal variations of extreme precipitation events in the United States: 1895–2000 24.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 43.2: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 43.6: Texas Palmer Drought Severity Index 32.2b: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 44.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change nca4 chapter 19 : Southeast 30.4: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 1.5: Observed and Projected Change in Global Sea Level 41.7: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation nca4 chapter 2 : Our Changing Climate 6.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 21.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 18.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 33.4: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 9.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 23.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 2.2: Global Temperature and Carbon Dioxide 25.2b: Observed Maximum Summer Temperature 13.3a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 35.2d-2: Observed Summer Precipitation 35.2b: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 29.5: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 24.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 29.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 22.3: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 22.5: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 1.3: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 48.5: Observed Annual Precipitation 10.3: Texas Summer 2011: Record Heat and Drought 10.6: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 3.6: Arizona Palmer Drought Severity Index 1.2b: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 35.4: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 35.2d-1: Observed Winter Precipitation 4.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 13.3d: Observed Annual Precipitation 36.3d: Observed Summer Precipitaton Monitoring and Understanding Changes in Extremes: Extratropical Storms, Winds, and Waves 7447d9e8-b0d8-4009-af97-fce115235283 44.6: Water Levels in the Great Salt Lake at Saltair Boat Harbor c6e6a4b8-840f-4d4c-9487-9699fb94dd31 13.4a: Observed Spring Precipitation 1.2: Change in Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 35.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 7.6: Future Projection of Regional Extreme Precipitation of 2-Day Duration and 5 Year Return 12.8: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 15.2c: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 18.8: Observed and Projected Change in Global Sea Level 13.2a: Observed Spring Temperature climate-science-special-report chapter 6 : Temperature Changes in the United States 31.4a: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 40.2a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 45.2c-b: Observed Winter Temperature 37.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 32.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 4.4: Observed Summer Temperature 30.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 19.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 25.2c: Observed Minimum Summer Temperature 31.4d: Observed Monsoon Season Precipitation 11.2: Projected Change in the Number of Very Hot Days -.1: Global Temperatures Continue to Rise -.3: Sensitivity Analysis of Differences in Modeling Approaches 36.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 32.8: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 49.2a-1: Observed Winter Temperature 36.7: Projected Change in Summer Precipitation 6.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 27.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 44.4b: Observed Annual Precipitation 40.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 12.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 6.7: Projected Changes in Annual Average Temperatures SAP 3.1. Climate Models: An Assessment of Strengths and Limitations 5.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change Regional Surface Climate Conditions in CMIP3 and CMIP5 for the United States: Differences, Similarities, and Implications for the U.S. National Climate Assessment fbad1b23-b576-4996-a75a-3fe2a1c8dde9 1.2b: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 49.2a-2: Observed Summer Temperature 15.4: Observed Annual Precipitation 33.5: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 49.7: Annual Lake-Wide Average Water Levels for Lake Michigan-Huron 23.4: Projected Increase in Number of Days Above 100°F 14.2a-1: Observed Spring Temperature 50.2: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 15.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 32.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 24.2b: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 33.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 16.2a: Observed Spring Temperature 43.9: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 6.3: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 44.7: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 17.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 43.4a: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 24.7: Projected Change in Summer Precipitation 10.2b: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 2.4: Emissions Levels Determine Temperature Rises 19.22: Projected Changes in Cooling Degree Days 2.5: Observed and Projected Change in Seasonal Precipitation 31.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 36.2: Observed Summer Temperature 18.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 3.8: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 42.7: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 20.4: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 34.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 37.4a: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 11.8: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 17.2b-2: Observed Summer Temperature Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 3. Climate of the Midwest U.S. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-3 6.5c-2: Observed Spring Precipitation 18.4: Observed Annual Precipitation 11.3: Projected Change in Number of Days with Heavy Precipitation 46.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change -.1: Scenarios of Future Temperature Rise Seasonal and regional variations in extreme precipitation event frequency using CMIP5 6.5c-1: Observed Fall Precipitation 12961b12-f04c-41f6-9603-cdc65291eb89 Temporal variations in frost-free season in the United States: 1895–2000 13.8: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 83ef5674-8aa8-40fe-8c7e-4f0ac3d140d8 35.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 18.2c-2: Observed Fall Precipitation 21.5: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 23.2b: Observed Number of Warm Nights 25.4: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 26.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 6.8: Colorado Palmer Drought Severity Index 2.6: Projected Change in Average Annual Precipitation a405fab3-ee62-401c-8d93-347261d9eab9 16.7: Projected Change in Summer Precipitation 19.6: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 18.2b: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 3.2b-2: Observed Minimum Summer Temperature 22.3: Hydrologic Changes Across the Northern Great Plains 16.3d-1: Observed Spring Precipitation 6.2b: Observed Summer Temperature 9.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 49.6: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 4.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 33.3d: Total Hurricane Events in North Carolina 33.2a: Observed Summer Temperature 25.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 29.2b: Observed Number of Warm Nights 14.2d-2: Observed Summer Precipitaton 10.3: Observed and Projected Changes in Frost-Free Season Climate Science Special Report: The Fourth National Climate Assessment: Volume I 42.6: Observed Summer Precipitaton Changes in weather and climate extremes: State of knowledge relevant to air and water quality in the United States A new look at lake-effect snowfall trends in the Laurentian Great Lakes using a temporally homogeneous data set 24.4: Observed Summer Temperature nca3 chapter 2 : Our Changing Climate 47.5: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 37.2: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 12.6: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 37.7: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 25.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 31.2: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 30.5: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 19.15: Projected Changes in Plant Hardiness Zones 31.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 50.4c: Observed Annual Precipitation The seasonal nature of extreme hydrological events in the northeastern United States 27.3d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 6dafc8d5-9e40-4dd6-a63d-d456ec61a551 14.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 24.2b: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 6.6: End of Season Snow Water Equivalent Depth at Tower 24.8: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 8.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 49.2c: Observed Number of Warm Nights 46.7: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 19.2: Projected Change in Number of Hot Days 7.4: Observed Change in Heavy Precipitation 15.3b: Observed Summer Precipitaton 25.3b: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 41.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Days 35.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 834f7624-40de-4a09-9ced-faaca30d4d6d 15.2a: Observed Summer Temperature 35.5: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 44.4b: Observed Annual Precipitation 34.8: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 24.8: Observed and Projected Change in Global Sea Level 18.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days climate-science-special-report chapter 9 : Extreme Storms 26.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 49.2d-2: Observed Summer Precipitaton CMIP5 Climate Model Analyses: Climate Extremes in the United States 7.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 14.2c: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 22.2c: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 33.20: Projected Annually-Averaged Temperature C hange 7.3: 2-Day Precipitation Events Exceeding 5-Year Recurrence Interval climate-science-special-report chapter 7 : Precipitation Change in the United States 31.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 27.2a: Observed Winter Temperature 35.5: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 17.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 31.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 49.2b: Observed Number of Very Hot Days climate-science-special-report chapter 1 : Our Globally Changing Climate 24.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights Monitoring and Understanding Changes in Heat Waves, Cold Waves, Floods, and Droughts in the United States: State of Knowledge 1.4: Projected Changes in Hottest/Coldest and Wettest/Driest Day of the Year 2.10: Observed Increase in Frost-Free Season Length 44.4c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 40.2b: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 10.4: Observed Annual Precipitation 3.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 43.8: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 12.2: Observed Number of Very Hot Days How spatially coherent and statistically robust are temporal changes in extreme precipitation in the contiguous USA? 991826ea-5f98-45f2-827e-8fdfc48d07fb 3.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change U.S. temperature and drought: Recent anomalies and trends 28.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 3.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 19.5: Projected Change in Number of Consecutive Dry Days 31.4d: Observed Monsoon Season Precipitation 29.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 35.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 10.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 41.6: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 38.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 4.6: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 26.2b: Observed Number of Warm Nights Reply to “Comments on ‘Monitoring and understanding trends in extreme storms: State of knowledge’” Meteorological Causes of the Secular Variations in Observed Extreme Precipitation Events for the Conterminous United States 42.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 50.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 23.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 38.2a: Observed Number of Hot Days 1.4: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation nca3 chapter 29 : Research Needs for Climate and Global Change Assessments 33.2a: Observed Winter Temperature 31.7: New Mexico Palmer Drought Severity Index 17.4: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 14.6: Annual Lake-Wide Average Water Levels for Lake Michigan-Huron 1.3: Projected Changes in Temperature and Precipitation by Mid-Century 14.2a-2: Observed Summer Temperature 30.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 16.3b: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 22.4: Annual Lake-Wide Average Water Levels for Lake Michigan-Huron 10.4: Changes in Length of Growing Season 39.3a: Observed Number of Warm Nights 25.3a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 7.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 26fc56f4-b4e0-425b-adc8-14c6d961d558 37.4b: Observed Number of Warm Nights 22.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change Global land surface extremes of precipitation: Data limitations and trends 41.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 16.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 38.4: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 25.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 44.2: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 33.3d: Total Hurricane Events in North Carolina 19.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 4. Climate of the U.S. Great Plains. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-4 9.2b: Observed Number of Nights Below Freezing 15.3a: Observed Spring Precipitation 7.2b: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 41.3b: Observed Number or Warm Nights 10.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 18.4: Observed Annual Precipitation 17.5: Projected Change in Number of Nights Below 32°F Impacts, Risks, and Adaptation in the United States: The Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume II 34.19: Observed and Projected U.S. Temperature Change 42.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 33.6: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 18.2b: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 37.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 37.6: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 1.16: Projected Change in Very Hot Days by 2100 in Phoenix, Arizona 8.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change A framework for examining climate-driven changes to the seasonality and geographical range of coastal pathogens and harmful algae 46.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 9.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 23.2c: Observed Number of Very Cold Days 45.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 44.5: Utah Palmer Drought Severity Index 32.2a-1: Observed Winter Temperature A surface energy budget view of the 1988 midwestern United States drought 48.6: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 30.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 45.2b: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 17.2b-1: Observed Winter Temperature Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 1. Climate of the Northeast U.S. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-1 39.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 14.2b: Observed Number of Very Hot Days Can CGCMs Simulate the Twentieth-Century “Warming Hole” in the Central United States? 37.4d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 6.5d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 19.1: Historical Changes in Hot Days and Warm Nights 33.2b: Observed Winter Temperature 1.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 46.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights
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