People


Name ORCID Organizations Publications
Christian A. Kull 0000-0002-7516-7898 Monash University School of Geography and Environmental Science Fire in the Earth System
Jaakko Kullberg Poleward shifts in geographical ranges of butterfly species associated with regional warming
Markku Kulmala 0000-0003-3464-7825 University of Helsinki Department of Physics Global observations of aerosol–cloud–precipitation–climate interactions
Andrew Kulmatiski 0000-0001-9977-5508 Utah State University Department of Plants, Soils and Climate Woody plant encroachment facilitated by increased precipitation intensity
Scott Kulp 0000-0003-1435-7943 Climate Central Consequences of twenty-first-century policy for multi-millennial climate and sea-level change Evolving understanding of Antarctic ice‐sheet physics and ambiguity in probabilistic sea‐level projections Carbon choices determine US cities committed to futures below sea level Rapid escalation of coastal flood exposure in US municipalities from sea level rise
Michio Kumagai 0000-0002-0648-3061 Ritsumeikan University Rapid and highly variable warming of lake surface waters around the globe
Arun Kumar National Weather Service Climate Prediction Center National Weather Service Environmental Modeling Center National Weather Service National Centers for Environmental Prediction Robustness of the nonlinear climate response to ENSO’s extreme phases Annual Cycle of Pacific–North American Seasonal Predictability Associated with Different Phases of ENSO Why Did Large Differences Arise in the Sea Surface Temperature Datasets across the Tropical Pacific during 2012? Atmospheric Response Patterns Associated with Tropical Forcing A retrospective assessment of National Centers for Environmental Prediction climate model–based ensemble hydrologic forecasting in the western United States Causes and predictability of the 2012 Great Plains drought Hurricanes and Climate: The U.S. CLIVAR Working Group on Hurricanes The making of an extreme event: Putting the pieces together Anatomy of an Extreme Event Causes of the 2011–14 California drought
Devashish Kumar 0000-0003-1495-5089 Northeastern University Sustainability and Data Sciences Laboratory Regional and seasonal intercomparison of CMIP3 and CMIP5 climate model ensembles for temperature and precipitation
Emani Kumar ICLEI Local Governments for Sustainability Meta-principles for developing smart, sustainable, and healthy cities
Naresh Kumar Electric Power Research Institute EPRI Indian Agricultural Research Institute Centre for Environment Science and Climate Resilient Agriculture Climatic effects of 1950–2050 changes in US anthropogenic aerosols – Part 2: Climate response Climatic effects of 1950-2050 changes in US anthropogenic aerosols - Part 1: Aerosol trends and radiative forcing How do various maize crop models vary in their responses to climate change factors?
Ravind Kumar Fiji Meteorological Service An updated assessment of trends and variability in total and extreme rainfall in the western Pacific
Roselyn Kumar 0000-0002-3940-0488 University of the South Pacific Pacific Studies Culturally grounded responses to coastal change on islands in the Federated States of Micronesia, northwest Pacific Ocean
Sanjiv Kumar Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies North American climate in CMIP5 experiments: Part III: Assessment of twenty-first-century projections North American Climate in CMIP5 Experiments. Part II: Evaluation of Historical Simulations of Intraseasonal to Decadal Variability Intermodel variability and mechanism attribution of central and southeastern U.S. anomalous cooling in the twentieth century as simulated by CMIP5 models
Soora Naresh Kumar Indian Agricultural Research Institute Centre for Environment Science and Climate Resilient Agriculture Rising temperatures reduce global wheat production Similar estimates of temperature impacts on global wheat yield by three independent methods
Christian D. Kummerow Colorado State University Department of Atmospheric Science The Global Precipitation Measurement Mission
Michaël Kummert 0000-0003-1606-8344 Polytechnique Montreal Department of Mechanical Engineering Designing net-zero energy buildings for the future climate, not for the past
Lee Kump The Pennsylvania State University Department of Geosciences The Geological Record of Ocean Acidification
Zbigniew W. Kundzewicz Polish Academy of Sciences Institute for Agricultural and Forest Environment Polish Academy of Sciences Research Centre for Agricultural and Forest Environment Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research Climate change impacts on the hydrological cycle CLIMATE CHANGE: Stationarity Is Dead: Whither Water Management? Integrating risks of climate change into water management Coping with variability and change: Floods and droughts
Kenneth E. Kunkel 0000-0001-6667-7047 Cooperative Institute for Climate and Satellites Cooperative Institute for Climate and Satellites - NC Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies Desert Research Institute Division of Atmospheric Sciences Illinois State Water Survey Midwestern Climate Center Midwestern Regional Climate Center National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Centers for Environmental Information NCEI National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Climatic Data Center North Carolina State University University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Department of Atmospheric Sciences 19.3: Historical Change in Heavy Precipitation 11.8: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 40.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 8.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 43e4c69f-2e48-4edc-ad0b-c0508a35f6d7 4.6: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 11.9: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level Seasonal and regional variations in extreme precipitation event frequency using CMIP5 42.2: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 24.2b: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 51.8: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 2.8: Projected Temperature Change 13.3c: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 25.9: Projected Shift in Agricultural Zones 48.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 2.2: Global Temperature and Carbon Dioxide 18.6: When it Rains, it Pours 30.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 1.4: Projected Global Temperatures 19.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 6.5d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events The response of Great Lakes water levels to future climate scenarios with an emphasis on Lake Michigan-Huron 35.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 1.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 2.15: Newer Simulations for Projected Precipitation Change (CMIP5 models) 21.5: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 18.4: Observed Annual Precipitation Probable maximum precipitation and climate change 34.12: Measurements of Surface Temperature and Sun’s Energy 19.1: Historical Changes in Hot Days and Warm Nights 44.4d: April 1 Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) at Ben Lomond Peak, UT Indicator: Heavy Precipitation 45.5: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 16.3d-2: Observed Summer Precipitaton 33.21: Projected Wintertime Precipitation Changes 29.2a: Observed Number of Hot Days 49.2d-1: Observed Winter Precipitation Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 8. Climate of the Pacific Islands. U.S. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-8 17.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 3.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 49.2a-2: Observed Summer Temperature 15.2c: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 19.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 30.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 43.6: Texas Palmer Drought Severity Index 32.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 35.4: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 31.2: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days Observational- and model-based trends and projections of extreme precipitation over the contiguous United States 18.7: Projected Change in Summer Precipitation 20.7: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 45.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 47.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation Temporal variations of extreme precipitation events in the United States: 1895–2000 2.14: Projected Precipitation Change by Season 28.6: Lake Mead Elevation at Hoover Dam 23.1: Monitoring Precipitation Across the Southern Great Plains 16.6: Kansas Palmer Drought Severity Index 10.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 25.2c: Observed Minimum Summer Temperature 35.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 32.8: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 22.2b: Observed Number of Warm Nights 24.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 19.22: Projected Changes in Cooling Degree Days 18.7: Projected Change in Summer Precipitation 46.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 39.7: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 14.7: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 24.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation -.1: Scenarios of Future Temperature Rise 38.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 39.3d: Observed Summer Precipitaton Recent increases in U.S. heavy precipitation associated with tropical cyclones 50.4b: Observed Number of Very Cold Days 36.3a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days nca3 chapter 33 : Appendix 3: Climate Science Supplement 1.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 21.2a: Observed Number of Hot Days 4.4: Projected Changes in Seasonal Precipitation Effects of ocean warming on growth and distribution of dinoflagellates associated with ciguatera fish poisoning in the Caribbean 26.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Days 37.2: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 18.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 25.3b: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights Detection and attribution of climate extremes in the observed record 38.6: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 24.8: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 8.1: Projected Change in Soil Moisture, End of Century, Higher Emissions 50.4a-1: Observed Winter Temperature 25.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 43.4c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 2.8: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 50.5: End of Season Snow Water Equivalent Depth at Lewis Lake Divide 49.2b: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 8.2b: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 29.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 17.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 32.2d: Observed Annual Precipitation 33.3a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 27.2a: Observed Winter Temperature 31.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation nca3 chapter 29 : Research Needs for Climate and Global Change Assessments 29.5: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 39.3c: Observed Annual Precipitation 14.2d-1: Observed Spring Precipitaton 50.4c: Observed Annual Precipitation 49.4: Ice Cover on Lake Mendota 2.6: Observed and Projected Change in Heavy Precipitation 17.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 18.8: Observed and Projected Change in Global Sea Level 31.4b: Observed Annual Precipitation 32.2a-1: Observed Winter Temperature 25.3d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 36.7: Projected Change in Summer Precipitation 22.2c: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 35.5: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation -.4: Significantly More Warming Occurs Under Higher Greenhouse Gas Concentration Scenarios 27.3b: Observed Number or Warm Nights 1.2b: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 1.2: Global Land and Ocean Temperature Anamolies The Nature and Impacts of the July 1999 Heat Wave in the Midwestern United States: Learning from the Lessons of 1995 22.3: Hydrologic Changes Across the Northern Great Plains 49.2c: Observed Number of Warm Nights 6.2a: Observed Spring Temperature 18.2d: Observed Fall Precipitation 20.2c: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 31.4c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Synthesis of public water supply use in the United States: Spatio-temporal patterns and socio-economic controls 4.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 3.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 29.2b: Observed Number of Warm Nights 12.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 26.2b: Observed Number of Warm Nights 38.4: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 13.4b: Observed Summer Precipitaton 6.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 33.3b: Observed Annual Precipitation 21.3: Drying Effect of Warmer Air on Plants and Soils 35.2d-2: Observed Summer Precipitation 5.7: California Palmer Drought Severity Index 46.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 20.3: Observed and Projected Temperature Change for Puerto Rico 36.6: Oklahoma Palmer Drought Severity Index 20.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 4. Climate of the U.S. Great Plains. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-4 45.4: Observed Annual Precipitation 1.4: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 34.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 45.2c-b: Observed Winter Temperature 44.7: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 23.2b: Observed Number of Warm Nights Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 6. Climate of the Northwest U.S. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-6 SAP 3.1. Climate Models: An Assessment of Strengths and Limitations 28.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 28.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 41.6: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 1.9: Proxy Temperature Reconstructions 1.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 31.4a: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 13.3a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days Trends and extremes in Northern Hemisphere snow characteristics 2.10: Observed Increase in Frost-Free Season Length 9.2b: Observed Number of Nights Below Freezing 44.6: Annual Average Water Levels in the Great Salt Lake at Saltair Boat Harbor 6.3: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 20.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 24.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 44.2: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 15.3b: Observed Summer Precipitaton 24.4: Observed Summer Temperature 31.4b: Observed Annual Precipitation 30.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 9.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 31.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 1.4: Projected Changes in Hottest/Coldest and Wettest/Driest Day of the Year 22.2d: Observed Annual Precipitation 10.2a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 47.7: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 8.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 27.3c: Observed Annual Precipitation 19.3: Projected Change in Number of Warm Nights 34.9: Decade-Scale Changes in Average Temperature for U.S. Regions 18.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 26.4a: Observed Winter Temperature 35.2d-1: Observed Winter Precipitation -.3: Sensitivity Analysis of Differences in Modeling Approaches 31.5: Storage Levels in the Elephant Butte Reservoir 35.5: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 3.2b-2: Observed Minimum Summer Temperature 14.6: Annual Lake-Wide Average Water Levels for Lake Michigan-Huron 40.5: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 6.7: Projected Changes in Annual Average Temperatures 14.3: Growing Season Lengthens 38.2b: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 24.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 16.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 10.4: Observed Annual Precipitation 17.4: Projected Change in Number of Days Over 95°F 10.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 5bd64870-4e8e-45cb-9b2c-83c52f5af397 How spatially coherent and statistically robust are temporal changes in extreme precipitation in the contiguous USA? 26.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 1.16: Projected Change in Very Hot Days by 2100 in Phoenix, Arizona Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 1. Climate of the Northeast U.S. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-1 A5.10: Observed and Projected Changes in Global Temperature 24.4: Observed Summer Temperature 37.4b: Observed Number of Warm Nights 33.2b: Observed Summer Temperature 37.7: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 41.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Days 22.4: Annual Lake-Wide Average Water Levels for Lake Michigan-Huron The seasonal nature of extreme hydrological events in the northeastern United States 19.2a-1: Observed Winter Temperature 16.3d-1: Observed Spring Precipitation 42.4: Observed Annual Precipitation 24.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 35.2d: Observed Winter Precipitation 2.13: Annual Maximum Precipitation and Changes in Consecutive Dry Days 45.2c-a: Observed Summer Temperature 18.2c-1: Observed Spring Precipitation 50.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 27.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 37.6: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 31.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 33.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 25.2a: Observed Summer Temperature 13.2a: Observed Spring Temperature 16.3b: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 34.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 33.3b: Observed Annual Precipitation 5.2a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 8.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 42.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 35.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 10.3: Observed and Projected Changes in Frost-Free Season 46.7: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 33.3d: Total Hurricane Events in North Carolina 30.7: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 33.5: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 47.5: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 31.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 45.2a: Observed Number of Hot Days 12.5: Observed Annual Precipitation 14.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 48.2: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 36.3b: Observed Number of Extremely Warm Nights 13.8: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 19.5: Projected Change in Number of Consecutive Dry Days 33.5: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 23.4: Observed Annual Precipitation A preliminary synthesis of modeled climate change impacts on U.S. regional ozone concentrations 35.2b: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 30.4: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events fbad1b23-b576-4996-a75a-3fe2a1c8dde9 34.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Days 40.2b: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing nca4 chapter 21 : Midwest Monitoring and Understanding Trends in Extreme Storms: State of Knowledge 18.4: Observed Annual Precipitation 12.8: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation cfafefc7-f04f-4cb3-8e7e-2978c92e2ae4 44.4a: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 23.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 1.3: Projected Changes in Temperature and Precipitation by Mid-Century 5.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 7.5: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 834f7624-40de-4a09-9ced-faaca30d4d6d 44.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 18.5: Total Hurricane Events in Louisiana 19.4: Historical Number of Warm Nights 43.4a: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 48.5: Observed Annual Precipitation 37.5: End of Season Snow Water Equivalent Depth at Mt. Hood 13.3d: Observed Annual Precipitation 44.7: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 31.4c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 7.3: 2-Day Precipitation Events Exceeding 5-Year Recurrence Interval CMIP5 Climate Model Analyses: Climate Extremes in the United States 6.5b: Observed Annual Precipitation 41.5: Annual Snowfall Totals at Menno 45.2b: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 991826ea-5f98-45f2-827e-8fdfc48d07fb 46.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 1.3: Projected Changes in U.S. Annual Average Temperatures 39.2: Observed Number of Hot Days -.1: Global Temperatures Continue to Rise 49.5: Observed Annual Precipitation 43.4b: Observed Annual Precipitation 22.3: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 6.5c-1: Observed Fall Precipitation 6.5a: Observed Number of Warm Nights 19.5: Projected Number of Warm Nights 30.2b: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 30.5: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 20.5: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 6dafc8d5-9e40-4dd6-a63d-d456ec61a551 27.6: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 13.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 39.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 27.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 11.2: Projected Change in the Number of Very Hot Days Global land surface extremes of precipitation: Data limitations and trends 18.2: Projected Mid-Century Temperature Changes in the Midwest 44.4b: Observed Annual Precipitation 3.8: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 1.3: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 26.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 23.2a: Observed Number of Hot Days usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016 chapter 1 : Climate Change and Human Health 31.4a: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 7.4: Observed Change in Heavy Precipitation 46.2b: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 12.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 31.4d: Observed Monsoon Season Precipitation 4.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 36.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 14.2a-1: Observed Spring Temperature 16.3c: Observed Annual Precipitation 5.8: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 42.6: Observed Summer Precipitaton 2.5: Observed and Projected Change in Seasonal Precipitation 29.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 24.8: Observed and Projected Change in Global Sea Level 15.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 18.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 39.5: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 49.2d-2: Observed Summer Precipitaton 9.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days Changes in weather and climate extremes: State of knowledge relevant to air and water quality in the United States 26.4b: Observed Summer Temperature 18.2b: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 37.4a: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 10.2c: Observed Summer Precipitation Temporal variations in frost-free season in the United States: 1895–2000 46.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 44.4c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events nca4 chapter A3 : Appendix 3: Data Tools and Scenario Products 28.4: Observed Annual Precipitation 33.3c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 44.2: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 41.3b: Observed Number or Warm Nights 16.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 41.7: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 33.2a: Observed Summer Temperature 22.2: Projected Changes in Very Hot Days, Cool Days, and Heavy Precipitation 44.4b: Observed Annual Precipitation 21.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 18.2b: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing a405fab3-ee62-401c-8d93-347261d9eab9 50.4a-2: Observed Summer Temperature 42.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 17.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 27.2b: Observed Summer Temperature 45.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 3.3: Observed Number of Extremely Warm Nights 1.4: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 25.2b: Observed Maximum Summer Temperature 7.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 2.4: Observed and Projected Changes in Annual Average Temperature 29.4: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 23.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 36.2: Observed Summer Temperature 40.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 15.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 22.2a: Observed Number of Hot Days 44.5: Utah Palmer Drought Severity Index 2.5: Projected Change in Average Annual Temperature 35.2b: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 19.2a-2: Observed Summer Temperature 2.17: Observed Change in Very Heavy Precipitation 4.2b: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 33.2b: Observed Winter Temperature 48.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 16.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 7.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 42.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 41.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 40.2a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 2.9: Projected Temperature Change by 2071-2099 (CMIP5 models) 2.27: Ice Cover in the Great Lakes 18.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 19.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 44.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 7.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 6.5: Projected Changes in Key Climate Variables Affecting Agricultural Productivity 18.2e: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 3.7: Lake Mead Water Level at Hoover Dam 14.4: Observed Annual Precipitation fe1ad9b9-3516-4623-aa66-4956ceec6891 7.2b: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 3.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 20.4: Projected Precipitation Change for Puerto Rico 1.2b: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 29.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 24.2b: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing A5.14: Temperature Change Varies by Region Monitoring and Understanding Changes in Extremes: Extratropical Storms, Winds, and Waves 36.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights Monitoring and Understanding Changes in Heat Waves, Cold Waves, Floods, and Droughts in the United States: State of Knowledge 12.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 24.2a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 28.9: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 34.8: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation nca3 chapter 34 : Appendix 4: Frequently Asked Questions 17.2b-1: Observed Winter Temperature 45.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 43.8: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 48.6: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 39.3a: Observed Number of Warm Nights a7c5f0aa-db53-4965-bd56-88e8f7a87a89 17.2b-2: Observed Summer Temperature A framework for examining climate-driven changes to the seasonality and geographical range of coastal pathogens and harmful algae 34.23: Emissions Levels Determine Temperature Rises 49.6: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 25.1: Temperature Has Increased Across the Southwest 7.7: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 3.5: Observed Monsoon Season Precipitation 31.7: New Mexico Palmer Drought Severity Index 34.6: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 32.6: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 10.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 12961b12-f04c-41f6-9603-cdc65291eb89 21.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 30.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 31.7: New Mexico Palmer Drought Severity Index 46.6: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation A5.11: Comparison of Climate Models and Observed Temperature Change 36.3d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 7.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 31.5: Storage Levels in Elephant Butte Reservoir U.S. temperature and drought: Recent anomalies and trends 21.2b: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 22.5: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 18.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 18.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 29.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 3.6: Arizona Palmer Drought Severity Index 19.5: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 15.2d: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 37.4d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 50.2: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 46.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 18.5: Total Hurricane Events in Louisiana 10.4: Changes in Length of Growing Season 2.7: Observed U.S. Temperature Change 49.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 5.9: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 12.6: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 27.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 35.2e: Observed Summer Precipitation 33.3d: Total Hurricane Events in North Carolina 25.3c: Observed Annual Precipitation 32.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 15.4: Observed Annual Precipitation 15.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events Can CGCMs Simulate the Twentieth-Century “Warming Hole” in the Central United States? Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 5. Climate of the Midwest U.S. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-5 10.3: Texas Summer 2011: Record Heat and Drought 44.5: Utah Palmer Drought Severity Index usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016 Appendix 1: Technical Support Document 33.4: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 7.7: Projected Change in Daily, 20-year Extreme Precipitation 7.8: Change in the Number of Days Within Precipitation Percentile Intervals 22cf98ca-20af-4fc0-ba4d-ef7234aa5be5 26.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation -.6: Extreme Precipitation Has Increased Across Much of the United States 14.2a-2: Observed Summer Temperature 34.5: Observed Annual Precipitation 26fc56f4-b4e0-425b-adc8-14c6d961d558 6.8: Colorado Palmer Drought Severity Index 44.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 33.4: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 13.6: Annual Lake-Wide Average Water Levels for Lake Michigan-Huron 16.2b: Observed Summer Temperature 1.8: 1700 Years of Global Temperature Change from Proxy Data 18.2c: Observed Spring Precipitation 41.3a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 4f071049-4952-4e2b-ac40-9942a7752382 1.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days A5.18: Short-Term Variability Versus Long-Term Trend Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 2. Climate of the Southeast U.S. NOAA Technical Report 142-2 3.2b-1: Observed Maximum Summer Temperature 32.2b: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 16.3a: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 2.6: Projected Change in Average Annual Precipitation A5.20: Extreme Temperature and Precipitation Events 49.2a-1: Observed Winter Temperature 19.6: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 35.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 32.2a-2: Observed Summer Temperature 7447d9e8-b0d8-4009-af97-fce115235283 Regional Surface Climate Conditions in CMIP3 and CMIP5 for the United States: Differences, Similarities, and Implications for the U.S. National Climate Assessment 8.6: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 3.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 1.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 1a061197-95cf-47bd-9db4-f661c711a174 4.4: Observed Summer Temperature 19.2b: Observed Number of Hot Days 10.5: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 50.4d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 33.22: Projected Summertime Precipitation Changes 39.3b: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 40.4: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 48.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 15.3a: Observed Spring Precipitation 19.4: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 42.7: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 21.10: Historical and Projected Annual Number of Days Above 100°F for Chicago 9.2d: Total Hurricane Events in Florida, 1900-2013 18.2c-2: Observed Fall Precipitation 1.5: Observed and Projected Change in Global Sea Level Reply to “Comments on ‘Monitoring and understanding trends in extreme storms: State of knowledge’” 14.2c: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 18.8: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 21.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 33.6: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 6.6: End of Season Snow Water Equivalent Depth at Tower 6.2b: Observed Summer Temperature 46.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton nca4 chapter 19 : Southeast 8.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 32.2c: Observed Number of Warm Nights 20.4: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 50.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 49.7: Annual Lake-Wide Average Water Levels for Lake Michigan-Huron 24.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 23.4: Projected Increase in Number of Days Above 100°F 37.4c: Observed Annual Precipitation 38.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 5.2d: Observed Winter Precipitation 15.2a: Observed Summer Temperature Meteorological Causes of the Secular Variations in Observed Extreme Precipitation Events for the Conterminous United States 7.6: Future Projection of Regional Extreme Precipitation of 2-Day Duration and 5 Year Return 19.4: Projected Change in Number of Heavy Precipitation Days 35.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 8.4: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 30.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 38.2a: Observed Number of Hot Days 17.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 26.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 10.6: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 13.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 33.20: Projected Annually-Averaged Temperature C hange Trends in Twentieth-Century U.S. Extreme Snowfall Seasons Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 3. Climate of the Midwest U.S. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-3 Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 9. Climate of the Contiguous United States. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-9 Climate Science Special Report: The Fourth National Climate Assessment: Volume I 35.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 4.3: Increasing Numbers of Cooling Degree Days 4.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 5.6: Storage Levels in the Shasta Dam Reservoir nca4 chapter 2 : Our Changing Climate 29.6: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 12.2: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 38.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 21.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 39.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 11.3: Projected Change in Number of Days with Heavy Precipitation 19.2: Historical Change in Freeze-Free Season Length 1.3: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 5.2b: Observed Annual Precipitation 1.5: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 19.15: Projected Changes in Plant Hardiness Zones 43.9: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 44.4c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 41.3d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 1.2d: Total Hurricane Events in Alabama, 1900-2013 36.3c: Observed Annual Precipitation 33.6: Observed and Projected Change in Global Sea Level 9.6: Projected Change in Summer Precipitation 006264b2-8594-4e09-9430-a1d0cc056ff7 33.3c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 28.2: Observed Number of Very Hot Days c6e6a4b8-840f-4d4c-9487-9699fb94dd31 35.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 25.10: Projected Increases in Extreme Heat 25.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 17.5: Projected Change in Number of Nights Below 32°F 25.4: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 36.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 2.4: Emissions Levels Determine Temperature Rises 27.3d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 24.2d: Observed Summer Precipitation 20.2b: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights c8484765-3d50-48dc-a2e3-09cb56610265 18.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 4.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 40.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 4.2a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 17.4: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 37.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change A new look at lake-effect snowfall trends in the Laurentian Great Lakes using a temporally homogeneous data set 44.4d: April 1 Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) at Ben Lomond Peak, UT 24.7: Projected Change in Summer Precipitation 9.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 41.2a: Observed Winter Temperature 14.2d-2: Observed Summer Precipitaton 17.2a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 25.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 17.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 14.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 38.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 24.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 8.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 31.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 19.2: Projected Change in Number of Hot Days 24.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 46.4: Observed Summer Temperature 31.4d: Observed Monsoon Season Precipitation 35.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 43.2: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 15.2b: Observed Number of Very Hot Days A surface energy budget view of the 1988 midwestern United States drought Trends in Twentieth-Century U.S. Snowfall Using a Quality-Controlled Dataset 13.2b: Observed Summer Temperature 6.5c-2: Observed Spring Precipitation 49.8: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 2d6fb90b-7d3d-4fce-8f63-36459f80d366 5.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 23.2c: Observed Number of Very Cold Days 24.7: Projected Change in Summer Precipitation 6.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 9.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 41.2b: Observed Summer Temperature 43.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights nca3 chapter 2 : Our Changing Climate 2.11: Projected Changes in Frost-Free Season Length 28.5: Nevada Palmer Drought Severity Index 21.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 5.2c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 10.2b: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 13.4a: Observed Spring Precipitation 35.4: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 23.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 21.7: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 40.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 34.2: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 32.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 18.7: Ice Cover in the Great Lakes 83ef5674-8aa8-40fe-8c7e-4f0ac3d140d8 33.2a: Observed Winter Temperature 48.7: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 14.2b: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 37.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 50.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 14.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 1.2d: Total Hurricane Events in Alabama 13.3b: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 43.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 26.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 9.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 3.2a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 22.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 7. Climate of Alaska. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-7 34.19: Observed and Projected U.S. Temperature Change 47.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change Impacts, Risks, and Adaptation in the United States: The Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume II 41.3c: Observed Annual Precipitation 27.3a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 16.7: Projected Change in Summer Precipitation 25.3a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 1.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 1.2: Change in Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 4.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 31.2: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 49.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Days 44.4a: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 7.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 7.2a: Observed Number of Hot Days 6.7: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation beed84d6-d0f9-4c33-a8d3-808ed6eb6e3b 20.2d: Observed Annual Precipitation nca4 chapter A5 : Appendix 5: Frequently Asked Questions 44.6: Water Levels in the Great Salt Lake at Saltair Boat Harbor 26.5: End of Season Snow Water Equivalent Depth at Noisy Basin 16.2a: Observed Spring Temperature
Howard Kunreuther National Bureau of Economic Research University of Pennsylvania Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania Wharton Risk Management and Decision Processes Center Wharton School of Business Department of Operations and Information Management Redesigning Flood Insurance nca3 chapter 26 : Decision Support: Connecting Science, Risk Perception, and Decisions Risk management and climate change Catastrophe Modeling: A New Ap... Climate Change, Insurability of Large-Scale Disasters and the Emerging Liability Challenge. NBER Working Paper 12821 A Methodological Approach for Pricing Flood Insurance and Evaluating Loss Reduction Measures: Application to Texas, Wharton Risk Management Center and CoreLogic, Philadelphia, PA and Santa Ana, CA At War with the Weather: Manag... Making America more resilient toward natural disasters: A call for action At War with the Weather: Manag... Risk Analysis and Risk Management in an Uncertain World Decision Processes for Low Probability Events: Policy Implications Risk, Media and Stigma: Unders...
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