People


Name ORCID Organizations Publications
Rachel M. Krause The University of Texas at El Paso Symbolic or substantive policy? Measuring the extent of local commitment to climate protection
Elisabeth Krausmann Joint Research Centre Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen Vulnerability of the oil and gas sector to climate change and extreme weather events
Fridolin Krausmann 0000-0002-9995-2372 University of Klagenfurt Institute of Social Ecology Bioenergy: how much can we expect for 2050?
Ken W. Krauss 0000-0003-2195-0729 National Wetlands Research Center U.S. Geological Survey Wetland and Aquatic Research Center U.S. Geological Survey second-state-carbon-cycle-report-soccr2-sustained-assessment-report chapter 13 : Terrestrial Wetlands Salt marsh-mangrove ecotones: Using structural gradients to investigate the effects of woody plant encroachment on plant–soil interactions and ecosystem carbon pools Ecology of Tidal Freshwater Fo... Predicting the retreat and migration of tidal forests along the northern Gulf of Mexico under sea-level rise
Julia Kravchenko Duke University Medical Center Duke Clinical Research Institute Minimization of heatwave morbidity and mortality
Ben Kravitz 0000-0001-6318-1150 Carnegie Institution for Science Department of Global Ecology Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division Extreme fire season in California: A glimpse into the future? Management of trade-offs in geoengineering through optimal choice of non-uniform radiative forcing
Meg A. Krawchuk University of California, Berkeley Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management University of California, Berkeley Ecosystem Sciences Division Global Pyrogeography: the Current and Future Distribution of Wildfire Fire in the Earth System Climate change and disruptions to global fire activity
Sonia M. Kreidenweis Colorado State University Department of Atmospheric Science Smoke-impacted regional haze in California during the summer of 2002
Jason R. Kreitler U.S. Geological Survey Tools and Methods for Evaluating and Refining Alternative Futures for Coastal Ecosystem Management—the Puget Sound Ecosystem Portfolio Model: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2011–1279, 47 p.
Christopher Krembs Washington State Department of Ecology The combined effects of ocean acidification, mixing, and respiration on pH and carbonate saturation in an urbanized estuary
Kerstin Kretschmer GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel Modeling the fate of methane hydrates under global warming
Daniel Krewski Risk Sciences International, Inc University of Ottawa University of Ottawa Faculty of Medicine Department of Epidemiology and Community Medicine University of Ottawa Institute of Population Health R. Samuel McLaughlin Centre for Population Health Risk Assessment Relationships Between Fine Particulate Air Pollution, Cardiometabolic Disorders, and Cardiovascular Mortality Lung cancer, cardiopulmonary mortality, and long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution Cardiovascular Mortality and Long-Term Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution: Epidemiological Evidence of General Pathophysiological Pathways of Disease Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: health implications of short-lived greenhouse pollutants
Volker Krey International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis IIASA International climate policy architectures: Overview of the EMF 22 International Scenarios RCP 8.5—A scenario of comparatively high greenhouse gas emissions The representative concentration pathways: an overview Scenarios towards limiting global mean temperature increase below 1.5 °C
Juergen Kreyling 0000-0001-8489-7289 Bayreuth University Biogeography Bayreuth University Disturbance Ecology Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Department of Conservation Biology A new generation of climate-change experiments: events, not trends
James W. Krieger University of Florida Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition Effects of variation in protein and carbohydrate intake on body mass and composition during energy restriction: A meta-regression
Elmar Kriegler 0000-0002-3307-2647 Carnegie Mellon University Department of Engineering and Public Policy Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Core Writing Team Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research Tipping elements in the Earth's climate system Scenarios towards limiting global mean temperature increase below 1.5 °C A new scenario framework for climate change research: The concept of shared socioeconomic pathways Guidance Note for Lead Authors of the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report on Consistent Treatment of Uncertainties A new scenario framework for climate change research: Scenario matrix architecture A new scenario framework for climate change research: The concept of shared climate policy assumptions
Benjamin Kriemann Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Working Group III Technical Support Unit Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change: IPCC Working Group III Contribution to AR5
Gerhard Krinner 0000-0002-2959-5920 Grenoble Alps University Laboratory of Glaciology and Environmental Geophysics A simplified, data-constrained approach to estimate the permafrost carbon–climate feedback
Richard Krishfield Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution CryoSat-2 estimates of Arctic sea ice thickness and volume
Lakshmi Krishnamurthy National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory University Corporation for Atmospheric Research On the seasonal forecasting of regional tropical cyclone activity
Hari Krishnan Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Climate Science Special Report: The Fourth National Climate Assessment: Volume I An independent assessment of anthropogenic attribution statements for recent extreme temperature and rainfall events
Nisha Krishnan ICF ICF International Climate Change Sustainability Division Climate change adaptation cost in the US: what do we know? Climate change and older Americans: State of the science
Srinath Krishnan 0000-0002-6852-1924 Yale University Department of Geology and Geophysics The role of carbon dioxide during the onset of Antarctic glaciation
Venkat Krishnan National Renewable Energy Laboratory Long-term implications of sustained wind power growth in the United States: Direct electric system impacts and costs
Joshua Krissansen-Totton 0000-0001-6878-4866 The University of Auckland Department of Physics Investigation of cosmic ray–cloud connections using MISR
Elizabeth J. Kristin Duke University Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions Climate change, water resources and child health
Jón Egill Kristjánsson University of Oslo Department of Geosciences Contrasting influences of recent aerosol changes on clouds and precipitation in Europe and East Asia
Berit Kristoffersen University of Tromsø Department of Political Science Climate Change, Ethics and Hum...
David Kristovich 0000-0001-9381-1053 Illinois State Water Survey Prairie Research Institute University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Department of Atmospheric Sciences Meteorological Causes of the Secular Variations in Observed Extreme Precipitation Events for the Conterminous United States Recent increases in U.S. heavy precipitation associated with tropical cyclones Trend reversal in Lake Michigan contribution to snowfall
Emma Kritzberg Food-chain length alters community responses to global change in aquatic systems
Natalie A. Krivova Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research The impact of the revised sunspot record on solar irradiance reconstructions Stratospheric O 3 changes during 2001–2010: The small role of solar flux variations in a chemical transport model Climate and carbon-cycle variability over the last millennium
Andrew Krmenec Northern Illinois University Department of Geography The role of meteorological processes in the description of uncertainty for climate change decision-making
Kevin D. Kroeger 0000-0002-4272-2349 U.S. Geological Survey Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center U.S. Geological Survey second-state-carbon-cycle-report-soccr2-sustained-assessment-report chapter 15 : Tidal Wetlands and Estuaries The magnitude and origin of groundwater discharge to eastern U.S. and Gulf of Mexico coastal waters
Kristy J. Kroeker 0000-0002-5766-1999 Hopkins Marine Station University of California, Davis Bodega Marine Laboratory Meta-analysis reveals negative yet variable effects of ocean acidification on marine organisms Impacts of ocean acidification on marine organisms: quantifying sensitivities and interaction with warming
Vittorio Krogh 0000-0003-0122-8624 IRCCS National Cancer Institute Nutritional Epidemiology Unit Meat consumption and mortality - results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
Roger Kroh Mid-America Regional Council nca3 chapter 13 : Land Use and Land Cover Change
Joe Krolak Federal Highway Administration Office of Bridge Technology Highways in the Coastal Environment, Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 25, Second Edition. Publication No. FHWA-NHI-07-096
Mindy E. Kronenberg Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center Department of Psychiatry Children of Katrina: Lessons learned about postdisaster symptoms and recovery patterns Posttraumatic stress symptoms in children after Hurricane Katrina: Predicting the need for mental health services Hurricane Katrina's first responders: The struggle to protect and serve in the aftermath of the disaster
Andreas Kronz 0000-0001-5655-4633 University of Göttingen Geoscience Center Amplification of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation associated with the onset of the industrial-era warming
Dick Kroon University of Edinburgh School of GeoSciences Exploring high-end scenarios for local sea level rise to develop flood protection strategies for a low-lying delta—the Netherlands as an example
Meade B. Krosby 0000-0001-6235-7839 University of Washington Department of Biology Connectivity Planning to Address Climate Change
Charles Krueger Michigan State University Pacific Salmon: Ecology and Ma...
Oliver Krueger 0000-0002-8066-4936 University of Edinburgh School of GeoSciences Storminess over the North Atlantic and northwestern Europe—A review
Robert Krueger Worcester Polytechnic Institute second-state-carbon-cycle-report-soccr2-sustained-assessment-report chapter 4 : Understanding Urban Carbon Fluxes
Andries C. Kruger South African Weather Service Global review and synthesis of trends in observed terrestrial near-surface wind speeds: Implications for evaporation
Chad Kruger Washington State University Center for Sustaining Agriculture and Natural Resources Assessment of climate change impact on Eastern Washington agriculture
Jens C. Kruger SPC Geoscience Division GSD Widespread inundation of Pacific islands triggered by distant-source wind-waves
Frank Krüger ELbtalANAlyse Water Soil Monitoring ELANA The situation of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs after the flooding of River Elbe and Mulde in 2002
K. Krüger University of Kiel Leibniz Institute of Marine Science Bi-decadal variability excited in the coupled ocean–atmosphere system by strong tropical volcanic eruptions
Michael C. Kruk ERT, Inc National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Climatic Data Center STG, Inc. The International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS) nca4 chapter 8 : Coastal Effects Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 2. Climate of the Southeast U.S. NOAA Technical Report 142-2 Monitoring and Understanding Changes in Extremes: Extratropical Storms, Winds, and Waves Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 4. Climate of the U.S. Great Plains. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-4 nca4 chapter 27 : Hawai‘i and US-Affiliated Pacific Islands
Paul B. Krummel 0000-0002-4884-3678 Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Atmospheric Research Evidence for variability of atmospheric hydroxyl radicals over the past quarter century
Thomas Krumpen 0000-0001-6234-8756 Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research Sea ice [in Arctic Report Card 2016]
Sagar Krupa University of Minnesota Department of Plant Pathology The Ozone Component of Global Change: Potential Effects on Agricultural and Horticultural Plant Yield, Product Quality and Interactions with Invasive Species
Alan J. Krupnick Resources for the Future Ancillary benefits of reduced air pollution in the US from moderate greenhouse gas mitigation policies in the electricity sector Ancillary human health benefits of improved air quality resulting from climate change mitigation
Igor Krupnik National Museum of Natural History Arctic Studies Center The Earth Is Faster Now: Indig... Pacific walruses, indigenous hunters, and climate change: Bridging scientific and indigenous knowledge
Gregory A. Kruse Minnesota Department of Natural Resources Floods of September 2010 in Southern Minnesota, U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2011-5045
James J. Kruse U.S. Forest Service State and Private Forestry Evidence and implications of recent and projected climate change in Alaska's forest ecosystems
John Kruse University of Alaska Anchorage Institute of Social and Economic Research Alaska Inupiat subsistence and wage employment patterns: Understanding individual choice
Paul D. Krushelnycky University of Hawai'i at Mānoa Department of Plant and Environmental Protection Sciences Climate-associated population declines reverse recovery and threaten future of an iconic high-elevation plant
Paul J. Krusic 0000-0001-5358-9697 Stockholm University Department of Physical Geography Continental-scale temperature variability during the past two millennia
David S. Kubien University of Toronto Department of Botany Quo vadis C4? An ecophysiological perspective on global change and the future of C4 plants
Michael Kuby 0000-0002-7988-5766 Arizona State University nca3 chapter 5 : Transportation
Paul Kucera National Center for Atmospheric Research The Great Colorado Flood of September 2013
Christopher A. Kucharik University of Wisconsin-Madison College of Agricultural and Life Sciences Department of Agronomy University of Wisconsin-Madison Nelson Institute Center for Sustainability and the Global Environment Direct human influence on atmospheric CO2 seasonality from increased cropland productivity Global Consequences of Land Use
Mali'o Kudis Brown University Department of Geological Sciences Widespread methane leakage from the sea floor on the northern US Atlantic margin
Gaku Kudo 0000-0002-6488-818X Hokkaido University Faculty of Environmental Earth Science Early onset of spring increases the phenological mismatch between plants and pollinators
Norma J. Kuehn Booz Allen Hamilton Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants Volume 1: Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity Revision 2, November 2010. DOE/NETL-2010/1397
Matthew Kuehnert 0000-0001-5390-0465 National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases Office of Blood, Organ, and Other Tissue Safety Current practices and evaluation of screening solid organ donors for West Nile virus
Amy J. Kuenzi The University of Arizona School of Renewable Natural Resources, Wildlife and Fisheries Science Brush mouse (Peromyscus boylii) population dynamics and hantavirus infection during a warm, drought period in southern Arizona
Ilsa Kuffner 0000-0001-8804-7847 U.S. Geological Survey U.S. Geological Survey Florida Integrated Science Center for Coastal and Watershed Studies A century of ocean warming on Florida Keys coral reefs: Historic in situ observations Decreased abundance of crustose coralline algae due to ocean acidification
Jong-Seong Kug Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute El Niño in a changing climate Changes in El Niño and La Niña teleconnections over North Pacific–America in the global warming simulations
Richard K. Kugblenu U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine Case Series: Chikungunya and dengue at a forward operating location
Kiersten J. Kugeler National Center for Zoonotic Vector-Borne and Enteric Disease Division of Vector-borne Infectious Diseases Surveillance for Lyme disease--United States, 1992-2006
Katrina Fischer Kuh Pace University The Law Adaptation to Climate ...
Norbert Kühl University of Bonn Steinmann Institute for Palaeobotany A model-data comparison of European temperatures in the Eemian interglacial
Peter Kuhn Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey Biotech Center Alaskan wild berry resources and human health under the cloud of climate change
Harriet V. Kuhnlein Centre for Indigenous Peoples' Nutrition and Environment McGill University School of Dietetics and Human Nutrition Indigenous Peoples' food syste... Arctic indigenous peoples experience the nutrition transition with changing dietary patterns and obesity
Peter Kuhry Stockholm University Bolin Centre for Climate Research Stockholm University Department of Physical Geography A simplified, data-constrained approach to estimate the permafrost carbon–climate feedback Soil organic carbon pools in the northern circumpolar permafrost region
Greg Kujawa U.S. Forest Service Forest Management Service
Elizabeth B. Kujawinski 0000-0001-8261-971X Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry Molecular characterization of dissolved organic matter associated with the Greenland ice sheet
Meetpal S. Kukal 0000-0001-6589-3426 University of Nebraska-Lincoln Climate-driven crop yield and yield variability and climate change impacts on the U.S. Great Plains agricultural production
Maaret Kukkonen University of Cologne Institute of Geology and Mineralogy 2.8 Million Years of Arctic Climate Change from Lake El'gygytgyn, NE Russia
Kalev Kuklane 0000-0003-3169-436X Lund University Faculty of Engineering LTH Thermal Environment Laboratory Effects of heat stress on working populations when facing climate change
Kelly R. Kukowski Texas State University Department of Biology Hydraulic responses to extreme drought conditions in three co-dominant tree species in shallow soil over bedrock
Abraham Kulangara Association of State and Territorial Health Officials 3rd National Climate Assessment Feedback Report. Reference Number 2011-0059
Kathy Kuletz U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Fluxes, Fins, and Feathers: Relationships Among the Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort Seas in a Time of Climate Change
Christian A. Kull 0000-0002-7516-7898 Monash University School of Geography and Environmental Science Fire in the Earth System
Jaakko Kullberg Poleward shifts in geographical ranges of butterfly species associated with regional warming
Markku Kulmala 0000-0003-3464-7825 University of Helsinki Department of Physics Global observations of aerosol–cloud–precipitation–climate interactions
Andrew Kulmatiski 0000-0001-9977-5508 Utah State University Department of Plants, Soils and Climate Woody plant encroachment facilitated by increased precipitation intensity
Scott Kulp 0000-0003-1435-7943 Climate Central Consequences of twenty-first-century policy for multi-millennial climate and sea-level change Rapid escalation of coastal flood exposure in US municipalities from sea level rise Carbon choices determine US cities committed to futures below sea level Evolving understanding of Antarctic ice‐sheet physics and ambiguity in probabilistic sea‐level projections
Arun Kumar National Weather Service Climate Prediction Center National Weather Service Environmental Modeling Center National Weather Service National Centers for Environmental Prediction Causes of the 2011–14 California drought Causes and predictability of the 2012 Great Plains drought Annual Cycle of Pacific–North American Seasonal Predictability Associated with Different Phases of ENSO The making of an extreme event: Putting the pieces together A retrospective assessment of National Centers for Environmental Prediction climate model–based ensemble hydrologic forecasting in the western United States Hurricanes and Climate: The U.S. CLIVAR Working Group on Hurricanes Anatomy of an Extreme Event Atmospheric Response Patterns Associated with Tropical Forcing Robustness of the nonlinear climate response to ENSO’s extreme phases Why Did Large Differences Arise in the Sea Surface Temperature Datasets across the Tropical Pacific during 2012?
Devashish Kumar 0000-0003-1495-5089 Northeastern University Sustainability and Data Sciences Laboratory Regional and seasonal intercomparison of CMIP3 and CMIP5 climate model ensembles for temperature and precipitation
Naresh Kumar Electric Power Research Institute Climatic effects of 1950–2050 changes in US anthropogenic aerosols – Part 2: Climate response Climatic effects of 1950-2050 changes in US anthropogenic aerosols - Part 1: Aerosol trends and radiative forcing
Sanjiv Kumar Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies North American Climate in CMIP5 Experiments. Part II: Evaluation of Historical Simulations of Intraseasonal to Decadal Variability Intermodel variability and mechanism attribution of central and southeastern U.S. anomalous cooling in the twentieth century as simulated by CMIP5 models
Michaël Kummert 0000-0003-1606-8344 Polytechnique Montreal Department of Mechanical Engineering Designing net-zero energy buildings for the future climate, not for the past
Lee Kump The Pennsylvania State University Department of Geosciences The Geological Record of Ocean Acidification
Zbigniew W. Kundzewicz Polish Academy of Sciences Research Centre for Agricultural and Forest Environment Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research Coping with variability and change: Floods and droughts Climate change impacts on the hydrological cycle CLIMATE CHANGE: Stationarity Is Dead: Whither Water Management?
Kenneth E. Kunkel 0000-0001-6667-7047 North Carolina State University Cooperative Institute for Climate and Satellites - NC National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Climatic Data Center Illinois State Water Survey University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Desert Research Institute Division of Atmospheric Sciences Midwestern Regional Climate Center Midwestern Climate Center Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Centers for Environmental Information NCEI University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Department of Atmospheric Sciences 49.2c: Observed Number of Warm Nights 48.6: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events A new look at lake-effect snowfall trends in the Laurentian Great Lakes using a temporally homogeneous data set 25.3c: Observed Annual Precipitation 2.2: Global Temperature and Carbon Dioxide 49.5: Observed Annual Precipitation 12.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 46.6: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 40.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 6.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 27.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 1.9: Proxy Temperature Reconstructions Probable maximum precipitation and climate change nca3 chapter 2 : Our Changing Climate 39.7: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 3.3: Observed Number of Extremely Warm Nights 1.8: 1700 Years of Global Temperature Change from Proxy Data 34.9: Decade-Scale Changes in Average Temperature for U.S. Regions 4.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 10.4: Observed Annual Precipitation 2.4: Observed and Projected Changes in Annual Average Temperature 47.7: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation a405fab3-ee62-401c-8d93-347261d9eab9 nca3 chapter 34 : Appendix 4: Frequently Asked Questions 29.5: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 17.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 19.3: Projected Change in Number of Warm Nights 29.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 27.3a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 32.6: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 38.2a: Observed Number of Hot Days 19.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 44.5: Utah Palmer Drought Severity Index 30.7: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 27.2b: Observed Summer Temperature 31.5: Storage Levels in Elephant Butte Reservoir 38.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 35.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 2.7: Observed U.S. Temperature Change 33.22: Projected Summertime Precipitation Changes 50.4c: Observed Annual Precipitation 1.2: Change in Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 9.2b: Observed Number of Nights Below Freezing 29.2a: Observed Number of Hot Days 6.3: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 36.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 6.5c-1: Observed Fall Precipitation usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016 Appendix 1: Technical Support Document 23.2c: Observed Number of Very Cold Days 7.7: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 15.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 23.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation The seasonal nature of extreme hydrological events in the northeastern United States 14.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 7. Climate of Alaska. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-7 44.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change a7c5f0aa-db53-4965-bd56-88e8f7a87a89 9.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 36.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 9. Climate of the Contiguous United States. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-9 18.4: Observed Annual Precipitation 41.3a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 8.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 7.4: Observed Change in Heavy Precipitation 15.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 12.2: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 47.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 18.7: Projected Change in Summer Precipitation 24.7: Projected Change in Summer Precipitation 8.6: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 15.2d: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights Meteorological Causes of the Secular Variations in Observed Extreme Precipitation Events for the Conterminous United States 33.2a: Observed Summer Temperature 18.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 44.4d: April 1 Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) at Ben Lomond Peak, UT 49.6: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 24.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 18.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 21.3: Drying Effect of Warmer Air on Plants and Soils 21.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 35.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 13.2b: Observed Summer Temperature 14.3: Growing Season Lengthens Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 6. Climate of the Northwest U.S. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-6 17.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 25.1: Temperature Has Increased Across the Southwest Indicator: Heavy Precipitation 18.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 41.6: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 16.6: Kansas Palmer Drought Severity Index 27.6: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 10.6: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 39.5: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 11.9: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 3.2b-2: Observed Minimum Summer Temperature 19.4: Projected Change in Number of Heavy Precipitation Days 46.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 26.4a: Observed Winter Temperature 44.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 18.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 5. Climate of the Midwest U.S. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-5 3.5: Observed Monsoon Season Precipitation The Nature and Impacts of the July 1999 Heat Wave in the Midwestern United States: Learning from the Lessons of 1995 5.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 35.2d-2: Observed Summer Precipitation 6.2b: Observed Summer Temperature 27.3c: Observed Annual Precipitation 20.5: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 35.2b: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 28.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 5.2b: Observed Annual Precipitation 12.8: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 45.2b: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 31.4a: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 46.4: Observed Summer Temperature 15.2b: Observed Number of Very Hot Days -.4: Significantly More Warming Occurs Under Higher Greenhouse Gas Concentration Scenarios 9.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 14.2a-2: Observed Summer Temperature 4.2a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 19.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 36.3a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 21.10: Historical and Projected Annual Number of Days Above 100°F for Chicago 27.3b: Observed Number or Warm Nights 13.6: Annual Lake-Wide Average Water Levels for Lake Michigan-Huron 41.3c: Observed Annual Precipitation 24.2d: Observed Summer Precipitation 35.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 24.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 32.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 49.2d-1: Observed Winter Precipitation 23.4: Observed Annual Precipitation 33.3b: Observed Annual Precipitation 13.3b: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 43.2: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 17.2a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 42.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 20.2b: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 21.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton -.1: Scenarios of Future Temperature Rise 19.3: Historical Change in Heavy Precipitation 24.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 40.2b: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 32.2d: Observed Annual Precipitation 44.5: Utah Palmer Drought Severity Index 30.5: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 18.4: Observed Annual Precipitation 29.4: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 18.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 35.4: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 15.3b: Observed Summer Precipitaton 7.2a: Observed Number of Hot Days 32.8: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 44.7: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 14.2d-1: Observed Spring Precipitaton 20.4: Projected Precipitation Change for Puerto Rico A5.18: Short-Term Variability Versus Long-Term Trend 31.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 34.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights A5.11: Comparison of Climate Models and Observed Temperature Change 30.2b: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 48.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 25.4: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 22.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 33.4: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 23.2a: Observed Number of Hot Days -.3: Sensitivity Analysis of Differences in Modeling Approaches 17.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 4.2b: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 1.2d: Total Hurricane Events in Alabama, 1900-2013 33.3c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 17.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 18.2e: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 38.6: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation Observational- and model-based trends and projections of extreme precipitation over the contiguous United States 3.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 7.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 31.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 8.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 31.4c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation 44.7: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 47.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 5.9: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 13.3a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days Effects of ocean warming on growth and distribution of dinoflagellates associated with ciguatera fish poisoning in the Caribbean 15.4: Observed Annual Precipitation 37.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 42.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 49.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Days 16.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 26.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation nca3 chapter 33 : Appendix 3: Climate Science Supplement 7.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 1a061197-95cf-47bd-9db4-f661c711a174 6.5b: Observed Annual Precipitation 16.7: Projected Change in Summer Precipitation 46.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 38.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 44.4c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 13.4b: Observed Summer Precipitaton 39.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change A surface energy budget view of the 1988 midwestern United States drought 7.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 37.5: End of Season Snow Water Equivalent Depth at Mt. Hood 5.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 31.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 13.3d: Observed Annual Precipitation 7.7: Projected Change in Daily, 20-year Extreme Precipitation 34.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Days 50.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 46.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 10.3: Texas Summer 2011: Record Heat and Drought 18.5: Total Hurricane Events in Louisiana 29.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 8. Climate of the Pacific Islands. U.S. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-8 22cf98ca-20af-4fc0-ba4d-ef7234aa5be5 34.12: Measurements of Surface Temperature and Sun’s Energy 8.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 21.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 35.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 1.4: Projected Global Temperatures Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 3. Climate of the Midwest U.S. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-3 24.8: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 44.6: Annual Average Water Levels in the Great Salt Lake at Saltair Boat Harbor 36.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights Monitoring and Understanding Trends in Extreme Storms: State of Knowledge 23.1: Monitoring Precipitation Across the Southern Great Plains Regional Surface Climate Conditions in CMIP3 and CMIP5 for the United States: Differences, Similarities, and Implications for the U.S. National Climate Assessment A5.14: Temperature Change Varies by Region 11.3: Projected Change in Number of Days with Heavy Precipitation 6.5: Projected Changes in Key Climate Variables Affecting Agricultural Productivity 31.2: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days Trends and extremes in Northern Hemisphere snow characteristics 50.4a-1: Observed Winter Temperature 34.5: Observed Annual Precipitation 1.16: Projected Change in Very Hot Days by 2100 in Phoenix, Arizona Trends in Twentieth-Century U.S. Snowfall Using a Quality-Controlled Dataset 6.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 35.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 50.4d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 44.4a: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 33.6: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 33.3d: Total Hurricane Events in North Carolina 20.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 35.2d: Observed Winter Precipitation 40.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 45.5: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 40.4: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 12.5: Observed Annual Precipitation 3.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 32.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 31.4a: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 3.2b-1: Observed Maximum Summer Temperature 9.6: Projected Change in Summer Precipitation 29.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 39.3d: Observed Summer Precipitaton -.6: Extreme Precipitation Has Increased Across Much of the United States 4.6: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 50.5: End of Season Snow Water Equivalent Depth at Lewis Lake Divide 44.4b: Observed Annual Precipitation 33.2a: Observed Winter Temperature 7.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 4. Climate of the U.S. Great Plains. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-4 16.3b: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 18.7: Ice Cover in the Great Lakes 25.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 8.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 49.2b: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 37.7: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 45.2c-b: Observed Winter Temperature 16.3d-1: Observed Spring Precipitation 39.3a: Observed Number of Warm Nights 19.22: Projected Changes in Cooling Degree Days cfafefc7-f04f-4cb3-8e7e-2978c92e2ae4 24.8: Observed and Projected Change in Global Sea Level Impacts, Risks, and Adaptation in the United States: The Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume II 24.2a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 1.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 10.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 14.4: Observed Annual Precipitation 15.2a: Observed Summer Temperature 19.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 16.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 12.6: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 22.2: Projected Changes in Very Hot Days, Cool Days, and Heavy Precipitation 34.19: Observed and Projected U.S. Temperature Change 10.5: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 49.2d-2: Observed Summer Precipitaton 83ef5674-8aa8-40fe-8c7e-4f0ac3d140d8 17.2b-2: Observed Summer Temperature 1.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 49.7: Annual Lake-Wide Average Water Levels for Lake Michigan-Huron 49.8: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 1.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 8.2b: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 16.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 2.10: Observed Increase in Frost-Free Season Length 18.8: Observed and Projected Change in Global Sea Level Seasonal and regional variations in extreme precipitation event frequency using CMIP5 31.4c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 2.8: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 41.2a: Observed Winter Temperature 13.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 2. Climate of the Southeast U.S. NOAA Technical Report 142-2 37.6: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 35.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 17.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 20.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days Reply to “Comments on ‘Monitoring and understanding trends in extreme storms: State of knowledge’” 26.4b: Observed Summer Temperature 12961b12-f04c-41f6-9603-cdc65291eb89 43.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 7.6: Future Projection of Regional Extreme Precipitation of 2-Day Duration and 5 Year Return 5bd64870-4e8e-45cb-9b2c-83c52f5af397 39.3b: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events Climate Science Special Report: The Fourth National Climate Assessment: Volume I 6.7: Projected Changes in Annual Average Temperatures 10.4: Changes in Length of Growing Season A framework for examining climate-driven changes to the seasonality and geographical range of coastal pathogens and harmful algae 28.2: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 39.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 43.8: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 16.3c: Observed Annual Precipitation 43.4a: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 20.2d: Observed Annual Precipitation 38.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 20.3: Observed and Projected Temperature Change for Puerto Rico 31.5: Storage Levels in the Elephant Butte Reservoir Monitoring and Understanding Changes in Extremes: Extratropical Storms, Winds, and Waves fbad1b23-b576-4996-a75a-3fe2a1c8dde9 nca4 chapter A3 : Appendix 3: Data Tools and Scenario Products 48.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 28.9: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 5.6: Storage Levels in the Shasta Dam Reservoir 6.5d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 34.6: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 33.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 23.4: Projected Increase in Number of Days Above 100°F 33.2b: Observed Winter Temperature 36.7: Projected Change in Summer Precipitation 33.3a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days A preliminary synthesis of modeled climate change impacts on U.S. regional ozone concentrations 6.8: Colorado Palmer Drought Severity Index 18.2c: Observed Spring Precipitation 35.2d-1: Observed Winter Precipitation 25.9: Projected Shift in Agricultural Zones 38.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 26fc56f4-b4e0-425b-adc8-14c6d961d558 7.8: Change in the Number of Days Within Precipitation Percentile Intervals 19.2: Projected Change in Number of Hot Days 18.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 19.2: Historical Change in Freeze-Free Season Length 25.3a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 26.5: End of Season Snow Water Equivalent Depth at Noisy Basin 27.2a: Observed Winter Temperature 14.6: Annual Lake-Wide Average Water Levels for Lake Michigan-Huron 45.2a: Observed Number of Hot Days 2.15: Newer Simulations for Projected Precipitation Change (CMIP5 models) 10.3: Observed and Projected Changes in Frost-Free Season 27.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 30.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 25.3b: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 26.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 49.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 44.4d: April 1 Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) at Ben Lomond Peak, UT 32.2b: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 14.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 22.2b: Observed Number of Warm Nights 26.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Days c6e6a4b8-840f-4d4c-9487-9699fb94dd31 38.2b: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 1.3: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 26.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 19.2a-2: Observed Summer Temperature 9.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 43.4b: Observed Annual Precipitation 12.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 40.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 22.3: Hydrologic Changes Across the Northern Great Plains SAP 3.1. Climate Models: An Assessment of Strengths and Limitations 16.3d-2: Observed Summer Precipitaton 42.7: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 1.2: Global Land and Ocean Temperature Anamolies 42.6: Observed Summer Precipitaton 3.7: Lake Mead Water Level at Hoover Dam 10.2a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 37.4c: Observed Annual Precipitation 4.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 41.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Days 18.2: Projected Mid-Century Temperature Changes in the Midwest 35.5: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 6.5c-2: Observed Spring Precipitation 25.10: Projected Increases in Extreme Heat 31.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 34.23: Emissions Levels Determine Temperature Rises 2.4: Emissions Levels Determine Temperature Rises 15.2c: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 5.2c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 25.2b: Observed Maximum Summer Temperature 21.5: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 2.6: Projected Change in Average Annual Precipitation 24.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 17.2b-1: Observed Winter Temperature 8.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 46.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 38.4: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 20.7: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 9.2d: Total Hurricane Events in Florida, 1900-2013 9.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 37.4d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 50.4a-2: Observed Summer Temperature 29.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 14.2b: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 1.4: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 11.8: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 43.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights Changes in weather and climate extremes: State of knowledge relevant to air and water quality in the United States 1.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 35.2e: Observed Summer Precipitation 31.4d: Observed Monsoon Season Precipitation 2.5: Projected Change in Average Annual Temperature 45.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 22.2c: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 23.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 37.4a: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 3.6: Arizona Palmer Drought Severity Index 25.2a: Observed Summer Temperature 19.5: Projected Number of Warm Nights 26.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 31.7: New Mexico Palmer Drought Severity Index 24.4: Observed Summer Temperature 991826ea-5f98-45f2-827e-8fdfc48d07fb 40.5: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 33.3c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 22.5: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 8.1: Projected Change in Soil Moisture, End of Century, Higher Emissions 6.6: End of Season Snow Water Equivalent Depth at Tower 18.6: When it Rains, it Pours 2.14: Projected Precipitation Change by Season 30.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 7447d9e8-b0d8-4009-af97-fce115235283 19.1: Historical Changes in Hot Days and Warm Nights 30.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 5.8: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 49.2a-2: Observed Summer Temperature c8484765-3d50-48dc-a2e3-09cb56610265 4.4: Projected Changes in Seasonal Precipitation 10.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 834f7624-40de-4a09-9ced-faaca30d4d6d 46.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 2.11: Projected Changes in Frost-Free Season Length 2.13: Annual Maximum Precipitation and Changes in Consecutive Dry Days 1.2b: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 12.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 18.2b: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 36.3b: Observed Number of Extremely Warm Nights 26.2b: Observed Number of Warm Nights 44.4b: Observed Annual Precipitation 1.3: Projected Changes in Temperature and Precipitation by Mid-Century 1.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 24.2b: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 33.2b: Observed Summer Temperature beed84d6-d0f9-4c33-a8d3-808ed6eb6e3b 44.2: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 33.4: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 50.2: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 41.5: Annual Snowfall Totals at Menno 42.4: Observed Annual Precipitation Can CGCMs Simulate the Twentieth-Century “Warming Hole” in the Central United States? 1.3: Projected Changes in U.S. Annual Average Temperatures 32.2c: Observed Number of Warm Nights 24.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 13.4a: Observed Spring Precipitation 46.7: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 45.4: Observed Annual Precipitation 46.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 2d6fb90b-7d3d-4fce-8f63-36459f80d366 19.15: Projected Changes in Plant Hardiness Zones 37.4b: Observed Number of Warm Nights 19.6: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 6dafc8d5-9e40-4dd6-a63d-d456ec61a551 48.7: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 42.2: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 19.5: Projected Change in Number of Consecutive Dry Days 24.4: Observed Summer Temperature 14.2c: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 19.4: Historical Number of Warm Nights 6.7: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 13.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 1.4: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 35.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 7.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation Temporal variations in frost-free season in the United States: 1895–2000 23.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 2.6: Observed and Projected Change in Heavy Precipitation 2.8: Projected Temperature Change 20.4: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 31.7: New Mexico Palmer Drought Severity Index 31.2: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 23.2b: Observed Number of Warm Nights U.S. temperature and drought: Recent anomalies and trends 41.7: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 40.2a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 6.5a: Observed Number of Warm Nights Recent increases in U.S. heavy precipitation associated with tropical cyclones 34.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 43.9: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 35.4: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 30.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days nca3 chapter 29 : Research Needs for Climate and Global Change Assessments Detection and attribution of climate extremes in the observed record 43e4c69f-2e48-4edc-ad0b-c0508a35f6d7 25.2c: Observed Minimum Summer Temperature 21.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights nca4 chapter 2 : Our Changing Climate 16.2a: Observed Spring Temperature 25.3d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 33.5: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 37.2: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 17.4: Projected Change in Number of Days Over 95°F 35.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days A5.20: Extreme Temperature and Precipitation Events 5.7: California Palmer Drought Severity Index 44.4a: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 25.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 4.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation Monitoring and Understanding Changes in Heat Waves, Cold Waves, Floods, and Droughts in the United States: State of Knowledge A5.10: Observed and Projected Changes in Global Temperature How spatially coherent and statistically robust are temporal changes in extreme precipitation in the contiguous USA? 33.6: Observed and Projected Change in Global Sea Level 32.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 18.8: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 10.2c: Observed Summer Precipitation nca4 chapter 21 : Midwest 6.2a: Observed Spring Temperature 24.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 44.2: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 16.3a: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 33.5: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 28.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 21.2a: Observed Number of Hot Days 24.2b: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 18.2d: Observed Fall Precipitation 15.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 25.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 19.2a-1: Observed Winter Temperature 7.5: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 4.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 42.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 19.5: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 2.5: Observed and Projected Change in Seasonal Precipitation 44.4c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 1.2b: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 10.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 33.20: Projected Annually-Averaged Temperature C hange 13.3c: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 16.2b: Observed Summer Temperature 1.5: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 18.2c-2: Observed Fall Precipitation 50.4b: Observed Number of Very Cold Days 50.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 32.2a-1: Observed Winter Temperature 1.2d: Total Hurricane Events in Alabama Trends in Twentieth-Century U.S. Extreme Snowfall Seasons 1.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 13.2a: Observed Spring Temperature 10.2b: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 27.3d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 7.2b: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 48.5: Observed Annual Precipitation 5.2a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 36.6: Oklahoma Palmer Drought Severity Index 1.4: Projected Changes in Hottest/Coldest and Wettest/Driest Day of the Year 11.2: Projected Change in the Number of Very Hot Days 31.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 19.4: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 1.3: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 43.4c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 31.4b: Observed Annual Precipitation usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016 chapter 1 : Climate Change and Human Health 49.2a-1: Observed Winter Temperature 33.21: Projected Wintertime Precipitation Changes 22.3: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 44.6: Water Levels in the Great Salt Lake at Saltair Boat Harbor 41.2b: Observed Summer Temperature 3.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 1. Climate of the Northeast U.S. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-1 31.4b: Observed Annual Precipitation 33.3d: Total Hurricane Events in North Carolina 30.4: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 37.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 18.2b: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 17.4: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 33.3b: Observed Annual Precipitation fe1ad9b9-3516-4623-aa66-4956ceec6891 41.3b: Observed Number or Warm Nights 28.4: Observed Annual Precipitation 43.6: Texas Palmer Drought Severity Index 1.5: Observed and Projected Change in Global Sea Level 4.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 27.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change Global land surface extremes of precipitation: Data limitations and trends 49.4: Ice Cover on Lake Mendota 40.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 19.2b: Observed Number of Hot Days 3.2a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 24.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 41.3d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 2.17: Observed Change in Very Heavy Precipitation 34.8: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 45.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 3.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 31.4d: Observed Monsoon Season Precipitation 45.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 21.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 2.27: Ice Cover in the Great Lakes 30.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 13.8: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 18.2c-1: Observed Spring Precipitation 22.2d: Observed Annual Precipitation 21.7: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 4.4: Observed Summer Temperature 14.2d-2: Observed Summer Precipitaton 34.2: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 39.2: Observed Number of Hot Days 32.2a-2: Observed Summer Temperature 45.2c-a: Observed Summer Temperature 7.3: 2-Day Precipitation Events Exceeding 5-Year Recurrence Interval 14.7: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 35.2b: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights nca4 chapter A5 : Appendix 5: Frequently Asked Questions 4f071049-4952-4e2b-ac40-9942a7752382 2.9: Projected Temperature Change by 2071-2099 (CMIP5 models) 3.8: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 21.2b: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 47.5: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 36.3c: Observed Annual Precipitation 26.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 48.2: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 18.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 36.3d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 006264b2-8594-4e09-9430-a1d0cc056ff7 -.1: Global Temperatures Continue to Rise 39.3c: Observed Annual Precipitation 36.2: Observed Summer Temperature 46.2b: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 41.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 14.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events CMIP5 Climate Model Analyses: Climate Extremes in the United States 44.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 8.4: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 17.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 18.5: Total Hurricane Events in Louisiana 24.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 22.2a: Observed Number of Hot Days 50.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 20.2c: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 15.3a: Observed Spring Precipitation 5.2d: Observed Winter Precipitation 28.6: Lake Mead Elevation at Hoover Dam 17.5: Projected Change in Number of Nights Below 32°F 18.7: Projected Change in Summer Precipitation 22.4: Annual Lake-Wide Average Water Levels for Lake Michigan-Huron 28.5: Nevada Palmer Drought Severity Index 35.5: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 4.3: Increasing Numbers of Cooling Degree Days 24.7: Projected Change in Summer Precipitation 14.2a-1: Observed Spring Temperature 51.8: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation The response of Great Lakes water levels to future climate scenarios with an emphasis on Lake Michigan-Huron 29.2b: Observed Number of Warm Nights 29.6: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level Temporal variations of extreme precipitation events in the United States: 1895–2000 nca4 chapter 19 : Southeast 48.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 9.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events
Howard Kunreuther National Bureau of Economic Research University of Pennsylvania Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania Wharton Risk Management and Decision Processes Center Wharton School of Business Department of Operations and Information Management Redesigning Flood Insurance Risk Analysis and Risk Management in an Uncertain World Risk, Media and Stigma: Unders... Making America more resilient toward natural disasters: A call for action Climate Change, Insurability of Large-Scale Disasters and the Emerging Liability Challenge. NBER Working Paper 12821 A Methodological Approach for Pricing Flood Insurance and Evaluating Loss Reduction Measures: Application to Texas, Wharton Risk Management Center and CoreLogic, Philadelphia, PA and Santa Ana, CA nca3 chapter 26 : Decision Support: Connecting Science, Risk Perception, and Decisions Decision Processes for Low Probability Events: Policy Implications Catastrophe Modeling: A New Ap... At War with the Weather: Manag... At War with the Weather: Manag... Risk management and climate change