People


Name ORCID Organizations Publications
Rebecca G. Asch 0000-0002-6138-5819 East Carolina University Department of Biology Princeton University Program in Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences Scripps Institution of Oceanography Integrative Oceanography Division Seasonal phytoplankton blooms in the North Atlantic linked to the overwintering strategies of copepods Reconciling fisheries catch and ocean productivity Future marine ecosystem drivers, biodiversity, and fisheries maximum catch potential in Pacific Island countries and territories under climate change Spring bloom dynamics and zooplankton biomass response on the US Northeast Continental Shelf Managing living marine resources in a dynamic environment: The role of seasonal to decadal climate forecasts Building confidence in projections of the responses of living marine resources to climate change Climate change and decadal shifts in the phenology of larval fishes in the California Current ecosystem
John S. Ascher American Museum of Natural History Division of Invertebrate Zoology National University of Singapore Department of Biological Sciences Climate-associated phenological advances in bee pollinators and bee-pollinated plants Historical changes in northeastern US bee pollinators related to shared ecological traits
Andy Aschwanden University of Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical Institute Modeling the evolution of the Juneau Icefield between 1971 and 2100 using the Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM)
Tirusew Asefa Tampa Bay Water A level-of-service concept for planning future water supply projects under probabilistic demand and supply framework
Nima Asgari Rainfall and outbreaks of drinking water related disease and in England and Wales
Jeremy D. Ash University of Wisconsin-Madison Department of Botany Tracking lags in historical plant species’ shifts in relation to regional climate change
Marianne Ash Indiana State Board on Animal Health Investigation of an outbreak of encephalomyelitis caused by West Nile virus in 136 horses
Michael Ash University of Massachusetts Amherst Political Economy Research Institute Justice in the Air: Tracking Toxic Pollution from America's Industries and Companies to Our States, Cities, and Neighborhoods
Neville Ash International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources Ecosystem-based Adaptation: A Natural Response to Climate Change
Roy Ashenfelter Kawerak, Inc. Building an indigenous evidence-base for tribally-led habitat conservation policies
Lance A. Asherin U.S. Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station Density-dependent vulnerability of forest ecosystems to drought
Moetasim Ashfaq Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge National Laboratory Climate Change Science Institute Oak Ridge National Laboratory Computer Science and Mathematics Division Purdue Climate Change Research Center Purdue University Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences Stanford Woods Institute for the Environment Department of Environmental Earth System Science Drought and immunity determine the intensity of West Nile virus epidemics and climate change impacts Climate adaptation wedges: A case study of premium wine in the western United States Regional hydrologic response to climate change in the conterminous United States using high-resolution hydroclimate simulations Assessment of the Effects of Climate Change on Federal Hydropower Extreme hydrological changes in the southwestern US drive reductions in water supply to Southern California by mid century
Matthew J. Ashfold 0000-0002-2191-1554 University of Nottingham School of Biosciences Airborne measurements of organic bromine compounds in the Pacific tropical tropopause layer
Olu Ashiru Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: urban land transport
Carin J. Ashjian 0000-0002-7894-1519 Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution An introduction and overview of the Bering Sea Project: Volume IV
Sharon T. Ashley Northern Illinois University Meteorology Program The University of Georgia Department of Geography Flood Fatalities in the United States Climatic analysis of Lyme disease in the United States
Walker S. Ashley Northern Illinois University Department of Geography Northern Illinois University Meteorology Program Urban-induced thunderstorm modification in the Southeast United States Flood Fatalities in the United States Fatalities associated with nonconvective high-wind events in the United States Driving blind: Weather-related vision hazards and fatal motor vehicle crashes The role of meteorological processes in the description of uncertainty for climate change decision-making Derecho hazards in the United States A Reassessment of U.S. Lightning Mortality Nontornadic convective wind fatalities in the United States
Mike R. Ashmore Stockholm Environment Institute, UK Global assessment of nitrogen deposition effects on terrestrial plant diversity: a synthesis REVIEW: The role of ecosystems and their management in regulating climate, and soil, water and air quality
Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf 0000-0003-3151-3397 China University of Geosciences Wuhan School of Engineering China University of Geosciences Wuhan School of Environmental Science International Air, Water, and Soil Conservation Society INWASCON Impact of soil erosion and degradation on water quality: a review
Andrew D. Ashton Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Department of Geology and Geophysics Anthropogenic controls on overwash deposition: Evidence and consequences
Molly Asifoa-Lagai American Samoa Community College Community and Natural Resources Division "Food Desert" American Samoa: Assessing food desert at school locations
Andrew P. Askew Syracuse University College of Arts and Sciences Department of Biology Longer growing seasons shift grassland vegetation towards more-productive species
Iulie Aslasken Statistics Norway "Late lessons from early warnings"—Uncertainty and precaution in policy approaches to Arctic climate change impacts
S. Monica Asman Epidemiology and Control of Mo...
Ari Asmi 0000-0003-3933-4684 University of Helsinki Department of Physics Global observations of aerosol–cloud–precipitation–climate interactions
Gregory Asner 0000-0001-7893-6421 Carnegie Institution for Science Department of Global Ecology Ecosystems and Land Use Change... The velocity of climate change What mediates tree mortality during drought in the southern Sierra Nevada? Global Consequences of Land Use Progressive forest canopy water loss during the 2012–2015 California drought
Willy P. Aspinall 0000-0001-6014-6042 University of Bristol School of Earth Sciences An expert judgement assessment of future sea level rise from the ice sheets
Matthew Asplin 0000-0002-2915-1166 University of Manitoba Centre for Earth Observation Science Fracture of summer perennial sea ice by ocean swell as a result of Arctic storms
Chad Asplund Georgia Southern University Master of Science in Sports Medicine Challenging return to play decisions: Heat stroke, exertional rhabdomyolysis, and exertional collapse associated with sickle cell trait
Ghassem R. Asrar Joint Global Change Research Institute National Aeronautics and Space Administration Office of Mission to Planet Earth World Climate Research Programme Climate Science for Serving So... Can Paris pledges avert severe climate change? Increased plant growth in the northern high latitudes from 1981 to 1991
Asfawossen Asrat 0000-0002-6312-8082 Addis Ababa University School of Earth Sciences Continental-scale temperature variability during the past two millennia
Eric Assamoi Aerology Laboratory Quantifying wildfires exposure for investigating health-related effects
Raymond Assel Cooperative Institute for Limnology and Ecosystem Research National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory University of Michigan Potential effects of climate changes on aquatic systems: Laurentian Great Lakes and Precambrian shield region Interannual variability of Great Lakes ice cover and its relationship to NAO and ENSO
Senthold Asseng University of Florida Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department The impact of temperature variability on wheat yields Comparing estimates of climate change impacts from process-based and statistical crop models
Roman Asshoff 0000-0002-1001-4479 University of Basel Institute of Botany Responses of deciduous forest trees to severe drought in Central Europe
Yrene M. Astor La Salle Foundation for Natural Sciences A time-series view of changing ocean chemistry due to ocean uptake of anthropogenic CO2 and ocean acidification
Rasmus Astrup A comment to “Large-scale bioenergy from additional harvest of forest biomass is neither sustainable nor greenhouse gas neutral”: Important insights beyond greenhouse gas accounting
Shankar Aswani 0000-0002-6201-0576 University of California, Santa Barbara Department of Anthropology Coastal ecosystem-based management with nonlinear ecological functions and values
Jane B. Atha Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Incorporating climate change into culvert design in Washington State, USA
Sotiri Athanaselis National and Kapodistrian University of Athens Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology Health impacts of fire smoke inhalation
Peter Athanasos The University of Adelaide Adelaide Nursing School Heatwaves and their impact on people with alcohol, drug and mental health conditions: A discussion paper on clinical practice considerations
Andrea Atkinson South Florida / Caribbean Inventory & Monitoring Network Coral disease following massive bleaching in 2005 causes 60% decline in coral cover on reefs in the US Virgin Islands
Carter T. Atkinson 0000-0002-4232-5335 U.S. Geological Survey Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center Mitigating future avian malaria threats to Hawaiian forest birds from climate change Ecology and conservation biology of avian malaria Interactions of climate change with biological invasions and land use in the Hawaiian Islands: Modeling the fate of endemic birds using a geographic information system
Chris Atkinson National Oceanography Centre Seasonal variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation at 26.5°N
Ian Atkinson 0000-0002-2295-6818 James Cook University Division of Research and Innovation James Cook University School of Marine and Tropical Biology Centre for Tropical Biodiversity and Climate Change Research Quantifying the benefit of early climate change mitigation in avoiding biodiversity loss
John Atkinson ARCADIS Sea-level rise effects on storm surge and nearshore waves on the Texas coast: Influence of landscape and storm characteristics
Larry Atkinson 0000-0003-2919-100X Old Dominion University Center for Coastal Physical Oceanography Old Dominion University Department of Ocean, Earth & Atmospheric Sciences Old Dominion University Resilience Collaborative The effect of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation on U.S. regional and coastal sea level Sea level rise and flooding risk in Virginia Accelerated flooding along the U.S. East Coast: On the impact of sea-level rise, tides, storms, the Gulf Stream, and the North Atlantic Oscillations
Lorilie Atkinson U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service Planning for climate change across the US Great Plains: concerns and insights from government decision-makers Future participation in the conservation reserve program in North Dakota
Marlin J. Atkinson Hawai'i Institute of Marine Biology Effect of elevated pCO2 on photosynthesis and calcification of corals and interactions with seasonal change in temperature/irradiance and nutrient enrichment Effects of elevated pCO2 on dissolution of coral carbonates by microbial euendoliths
Richard W. Atkinson MRC-PHE Centre for Environment and Health St George's, University of London Role of outdoor aeroallergens in asthma exacerbations: Epidemiological evidence Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: health implications of short-lived greenhouse pollutants
R. J. A. Atkinson University of London Oceanography and Marine Biolog...
Elliot L. Atlas 0000-0003-3847-5346 University of Miami Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences Department of Atmospheric Sciences A pervasive role for biomass burning in tropical high ozone/low water structures Airborne measurements of organic bromine compounds in the Pacific tropical tropopause layer Bimodal distribution of free tropospheric ozone over the tropical western Pacific revealed by airborne observations
Robert Atlas 0000-0002-0706-3560 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory Impact of the Atlantic warm pool on United States landfalling hurricanes
Cynthia J. Atman University of Washington Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering University of Washington Seattle Risk Communication: A Mental M...
Robert L. Atmar Baylor College of Medicine Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology Distribution in tissue and seasonal variation of norovirus genogroup I and II ligands in oysters
Michael Atrigenio Coral reef ecosystems protect shore from high-energy waves under climate change scenarios
Witsanu Attavanich 0000-0003-1502-5406 Kasetsart University Kasetsart University Department of Economics Texas A&M University Department of Agricultural Economics Effects of climate change on US grain transport Do markets and trade help or hurt the global food system adapt to climate change? Climate Change Global Food Security and the U.S. Food System Effect of Climate Change on Crop Production Patterns With Implications to Transport Flows and Inland Waterways
John A. Attaway Florida Citrus Consultants International, Inc. A History of Florida Citrus Fr...
Benjamin Attia 0000-0002-7446-3580 University of Delaware Center for Energy and Environmental Policy CEEP Estimating technical potential for rooftop photovoltaics in California, Arizona and New Jersey
Brian F. Atwater University of Washington Seattle U.S. Geological Survey The Orphan Tsunami of 1700—Japanese Clues to a Parent Earthquake in North America. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1707 Sudden, probably coseismic submergence of Holocene trees and grass in coastal Washington State
Jim Atwater Water and sewage systems, socio-demographics, and duration of residence associated with endemic intestinal infectious diseases: A cohort study
Edward R. Atwill University of California, Davis Department of Population Health and Reproduction University of California, Davis Veterinary Medicine Extension University of California, Davis Western Center for Food Safety Climate and on-farm risk factors associated with Giardia duodenalis cysts in storm runoff from California coastal dairies Fecal shedding of zoonotic food-borne pathogens by wild rodents in a major agricultural region of the central California coast
Todd Atwood 0000-0002-1971-3110 U.S. Geological Survey nca4 chapter 26 : Alaska
Guillermo Auad Scripps Institution of Oceanography CASPO Division Scripps Institution of Oceanography Climate Research Division Oxygen in the Southern California Bight: Multidecadal trends and implications for demersal fisheries Dynamical suppression of sea level rise along the Pacific coast of North America: Indications for imminent acceleration
Mark Aubel GreenWater Laboratories Recreational exposure to microcystins during algal blooms in two California lakes
Keith B. Aubry 0000-0003-1844-2424 U.S. Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station Climate change predicted to shift wolverine distributions, connectivity, and dispersal corridors
Jerome Aucan 0000-0002-9883-0082 Laboratory of Geophysical and Oceanographic Studies LEGOS Wave-driven sea level anomalies at the Midway tide gauge as an index of North Pacific storminess over the past 60 years
Roger F. Auch 0000-0002-5382-5044 Earth Resources Observation and Science Center U.S. Geological Survey Land-cover change in the conterminous United States from 1973 to 2000 Land change variability and human–environment dynamics in the United States Great Plains Scenarios of land use and land cover change in the conterminous United States: Utilizing the special report on emission scenarios at ecoregional scales
Renata Auchmann 0000-0002-0928-0868 Geographical Institute of the University of Bern Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research Tambora 1815 as a test case for high impact volcanic eruptions: Earth system effects
Allan Auclair 0000-0002-4375-5759 U.S. Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Policy and Program Development Unit U.S. Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Risk Analysis Process U.S. Department of Agriculture usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016 chapter 7 : Food Safety, Nutrition, and Distribution Predicting forest dieback in Maine, USA: A simple model based on soil frost and drought 7.2: Climate Change and Health--Salmonella Integrated strategy for sustainable cattle fever tick eradication in USA is required to mitigate the impact of global change
Asta Audzijonyte 0000-0002-9919-9376 University of Helsinki Department of Environmental Sciences Fishery‐induced evolution provides insights into adaptive responses of marine species to climate change
John Auerbach Massachusetts Department of Public Health Executive Office of Health and Human Services Emergency preparedness for vulnerable populations: People with special health-care needs
Maximilian Auffhammer National Bureau of Economic Research University of California, Berkeley University of California, Berkeley Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics Atmospheric Brown Clouds: Regional Assessment Report with Focus on Asia An integrated framework for quantifying and valuing climate change impacts on urban energy and infrastructure: A Chicago case study Climate, Extreme Heat, and Electricity Demand in California Empirical studies on agricultural impacts and adaptation US power plant sites at risk of future sea-level rise Climate change is projected to have severe impacts on the frequency and intensity of peak electricity demand across the United States
Pierre Auger Université Laval Review of health hazards and prevention measures for response and recovery workers and volunteers after natural disasters, flooding, and water damage: Mold and dampness
Laura Meehan August California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment Cumulative Impacts: Building a Scientific Foundation
Tom August Natural Environment Research Council Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Declining resilience of ecosystem functions under biodiversity loss
David J. Augustine 0000-0003-3144-0466 U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Rangeland Resources and Systems Research Elevated CO2 induces substantial and persistent declines in forage quality irrespective of warming in mixedgrass prairie Vulnerability of grazing and confined livestock in the Northern Great Plains to projected mid- and late-twenty-first century climate Adaptive management for drought on rangelands Functional response of U.S. grasslands to the early 21st-century drought
Brian H. Aukema Canadian Forest Service University of British Columbia University of Minnesota Department of Entomology University of Northern British Columbia Cross-scale Drivers of Natural Disturbances Prone to Anthropogenic Amplification: The Dynamics of Bark Beetle Eruptions Incoming! Association of landscape features with dispersing mountain pine beetle populations during a range expansion event in western Canada A literal use of “forest health” safeguards against misuse and misapplication
Juliann Aukema National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis Tree mortality from drought, insects, and their interactions in a changing climate
Toby R. Ault Cornell University Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences National Center for Atmospheric Research Climate and Global Dynamics Division The University of Arizona The University of Arizona Department of Geosciences Climate change is advancing spring onset across the U.S. national park system Relative impacts of mitigation, temperature, and precipitation on 21st-century megadrought risk in the American Southwest The Pacific Decadal Oscillation, revisited Assessing the risk of persistent drought using climate model simulations and paleoclimate data Northern Hemisphere Modes of Variability and the Timing of Spring in Western North America Unprecedented 21st century drought risk in the American Southwest and Central Plains Influences of the El Niño Southern Oscillation and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation on the timing of the North American spring Identifying anomalously early spring onsets in the CESM large ensemble project The False Spring of 2012, Earliest in North American Record Climatic controls on the snowmelt hydrology of the northern Rocky Mountains Spring onset variations and trends in the continental United States: past and regional assessment using temperature-based indices Trends and natural variability of spring onset in the coterminous United States as evaluated by a new gridded dataset of spring indices
Lisa Aultman-Hall The University of Vermont Transportation Research Center Assessing Impact of Weather and Season on Pedestrian Traffic Volumes
Olivier Aumont 0000-0003-3954-506X Laboratory of Oceanography and Climate: Experiments and Digital Approaches LOCEAN Laboratory of Physical and Spatial Oceanography LOPS Anthropogenic ocean acidification over the twenty-first century and its impact on calcifying organisms Spatial and body-size dependent response of marine pelagic communities to projected global climate change Emergent constraints on projections of declining primary production in the tropical oceans Drivers and uncertainties of future global marine primary production in marine ecosystem models
Alice Aureli International Hydrological Programme Beneath the surface of global change: Impacts of climate change on groundwater
Laurie Aurelian Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Diarrhoeal diseases in the White Mountain Apaches: Clinical studies
Larry W. Ausley North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources Division of Water Quality Ecosystem impacts of three sequential hurricanes (Dennis, Floyd, and Irene) on the United States' largest lagoonal estuary, Pamlico Sound, NC
A. Austin Illinois State University School of Information Technology Hydroclimatology of the 2008 Midwest floods
Diane E. Austin The University of Arizona Bureau of Applied Research in Anthropology Coastal Exploitation, Land Loss, and Hurricanes: A Recipe for Disaster
Jay A. Austin University of Minnesota, Duluth Department of Physics and Astronomy University of Minnesota, Duluth Large Lakes Observatory A century of temperature variability in Lake Superior Lake Superior summer water temperatures are increasing more rapidly than regional air temperatures: A positive ice-albedo feedback
Jeff Austin California Air Resources Board Climate, health, agricultural and economic impacts of tighter vehicle-emission standards
Jessica Austin 0000-0001-8045-9548 Green River District Health Department An approach to developing local climate change environmental public health indicators in a rural district
John Austin National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory The strength of the Brewer–Dobson circulation in a changing climate: Coupled chemistry–climate model simulations
Samuel H. Austin 0000-0001-5626-023X U.S. Geological Survey Variability of runoff-based drought conditions in the conterminous United States
Alicia M. Austin Johnson U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Western States Watershed Study - Executive Summary Report to USACE HQ Western States Watershed Study: Report to the Western States Water Council
Herman Autrup Aarhus University Atmospheric Brown Clouds: Regional Assessment Report with Focus on Asia
Paul G. Auwaerter Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Sherrilyn and Ken Fisher Center for Environmental Infectious Diseases Geographic expansion of Lyme disease in Michigan, 2000–2014
Alina Averchenkova 0000-0002-6445-5819 Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment Multinational and large national corporations and climate adaptation: are we asking the right questions? A review of current knowledge and a new research perspective
Christopher W. Avery 0000-0002-0297-2685 ICF U.S. Global Change Research Program 18.13: Impacts of Flooding in West Virginia A5.22: Americans Respond to the Impacts of Climate Change nca4 chapter 24 : Northwest 2.1: Human and Natural Influences on Global Temperature A5.32: Lyme Disease Cases Increase Under Warmer Conditions 1.16: Projected Change in Very Hot Days by 2100 in Phoenix, Arizona 1.7: Fort Calhoun Nuclear Station Flood 1.1: Impacts & Responses nca4 chapter A1 : Appendix 1: Report Development Process 1.11: Soybeans 1.8: Norfolk Naval Base 22.5: Fort Calhoun Nuclear Station Flood 1.4: U.S. Sea Level Rise nca4 chapter 1 : Overview nca4 chapter 4 : Energy Supply, Delivery, and Demand nca4 chapter A3 : Appendix 3: Data Tools and Scenario Products nca4 chapter 18 : Northeast A3.3: Traceability and Provenance in GCIS 18.8: Atlantic White Cedars dying from SLR A5.5: Human and Natural Influences on Global Temperature nca4 chapter 8 : Coastal Effects 1.5: Wildland-Urban Fire nca4 chapter 13 : Air Quality nca4 chapter 5 : Land Cover and Land Use Change nca4 chapter A5 : Appendix 5: Frequently Asked Questions nca4 chapter 14 : Human Health nca4 chapter 29 : Reducing Risks through Emissions Mitigation nca4 chapter 25 : Southwest 1.17: Isle de Jean Charles Community Relocation A1.5: Regional Engagement Around NCA4 Impacts, Risks, and Adaptation in the United States: The Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume II 18.9: King Tide Flooding in Annapolis MD 1.9: US Military Bases Vulnerable to More than One Potential Impact 18.10: Subway Air Vent Flood Protection nca4 chapter 23 : Southern Great Plains A3.1: Global Mean Sea Level Rise Scenarios nca4 chapter 20 : U.S. Caribbean 1.18: Adaptation Measures in Kivalina, AK 18.12: District of Columbia Water and Sewer Authority’s Clean Rivers Project nca4 chapter A2 : Appendix 2: Information in the Fourth National Climate Assessment 1.6: Hurricane Harvey Flooding 17.2: Hurricane Harvey Flooding
Michael L. Avery National Wildlife Research Center U.S. Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Wildlife Services Program Environmental temperatures, physiology and behavior limit the range expansion of invasive Burmese pythons in southeastern USA Cold weather and the potential range of invasive Burmese pythons
Kristen Averyt 0000-0002-3602-9118 Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences CIRES University of Colorado Boulder University of Colorado Boulder Western Water Assessment National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Earth System Research Laboratory Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Working Group I Technical Support Unit Climate Change in Colorado: A Synthesis to Support Water Resources Management and Adaptation. Report for the Colorado Water Conservation Board Freshwater Use by US Power Plants: Electricity’s Thirst for a Precious Resource. A Report of the Energy and Water in a Warming World initiative Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change nca3 chapter 10 : Energy, Water, and Land Use The water implications of generating electricity: water use across the United States based on different electricity pathways through 2050 Climate and Energy-Water-Land System Interactions. Technical Report to the U.S. Department of Energy in Support of the National Climate Assessment. PNNL-21185 The influence of future electricity mix alternatives on southwestern US water resources Water use for electricity in the United States: an analysis of reported and calculated water use information for 2008
Francia Avila Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Climate System Science University of New South Wales Climate Change Research Centre Importance of background climate in determining impact of land-cover change on regional climate