People


Name ORCID Organizations Publications
Christian A. Kull 0000-0002-7516-7898 Monash University School of Geography and Environmental Science Fire in the Earth System
Jaakko Kullberg Poleward shifts in geographical ranges of butterfly species associated with regional warming
Markku Kulmala 0000-0003-3464-7825 University of Helsinki Department of Physics Global observations of aerosol–cloud–precipitation–climate interactions
Andrew Kulmatiski 0000-0001-9977-5508 Utah State University Department of Plants, Soils and Climate Woody plant encroachment facilitated by increased precipitation intensity
Scott Kulp 0000-0003-1435-7943 Climate Central Carbon choices determine US cities committed to futures below sea level Evolving understanding of Antarctic ice‐sheet physics and ambiguity in probabilistic sea‐level projections Consequences of twenty-first-century policy for multi-millennial climate and sea-level change Rapid escalation of coastal flood exposure in US municipalities from sea level rise
Michio Kumagai 0000-0002-0648-3061 Ritsumeikan University Rapid and highly variable warming of lake surface waters around the globe
Arun Kumar National Weather Service Climate Prediction Center National Weather Service Environmental Modeling Center National Weather Service National Centers for Environmental Prediction Robustness of the nonlinear climate response to ENSO’s extreme phases Causes of the 2011–14 California drought A retrospective assessment of National Centers for Environmental Prediction climate model–based ensemble hydrologic forecasting in the western United States Atmospheric Response Patterns Associated with Tropical Forcing Hurricanes and Climate: The U.S. CLIVAR Working Group on Hurricanes Anatomy of an Extreme Event The making of an extreme event: Putting the pieces together Why Did Large Differences Arise in the Sea Surface Temperature Datasets across the Tropical Pacific during 2012? Annual Cycle of Pacific–North American Seasonal Predictability Associated with Different Phases of ENSO Causes and predictability of the 2012 Great Plains drought
Devashish Kumar 0000-0003-1495-5089 Northeastern University Sustainability and Data Sciences Laboratory Regional and seasonal intercomparison of CMIP3 and CMIP5 climate model ensembles for temperature and precipitation
Emani Kumar ICLEI Local Governments for Sustainability Meta-principles for developing smart, sustainable, and healthy cities
Naresh Kumar Electric Power Research Institute EPRI Indian Agricultural Research Institute Centre for Environment Science and Climate Resilient Agriculture Climatic effects of 1950-2050 changes in US anthropogenic aerosols - Part 1: Aerosol trends and radiative forcing How do various maize crop models vary in their responses to climate change factors? Climatic effects of 1950–2050 changes in US anthropogenic aerosols – Part 2: Climate response
Ravind Kumar Fiji Meteorological Service An updated assessment of trends and variability in total and extreme rainfall in the western Pacific
Roselyn Kumar 0000-0002-3940-0488 University of the South Pacific Pacific Studies Culturally grounded responses to coastal change on islands in the Federated States of Micronesia, northwest Pacific Ocean
Sanjiv Kumar Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies North American climate in CMIP5 experiments: Part III: Assessment of twenty-first-century projections Intermodel variability and mechanism attribution of central and southeastern U.S. anomalous cooling in the twentieth century as simulated by CMIP5 models North American Climate in CMIP5 Experiments. Part II: Evaluation of Historical Simulations of Intraseasonal to Decadal Variability
Soora Naresh Kumar Indian Agricultural Research Institute Centre for Environment Science and Climate Resilient Agriculture Rising temperatures reduce global wheat production Similar estimates of temperature impacts on global wheat yield by three independent methods
Christian D. Kummerow Colorado State University Department of Atmospheric Science The Global Precipitation Measurement Mission
Michaël Kummert 0000-0003-1606-8344 Polytechnique Montreal Department of Mechanical Engineering Designing net-zero energy buildings for the future climate, not for the past
Lee Kump The Pennsylvania State University Department of Geosciences The Geological Record of Ocean Acidification
Zbigniew W. Kundzewicz Polish Academy of Sciences Institute for Agricultural and Forest Environment Polish Academy of Sciences Research Centre for Agricultural and Forest Environment Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research CLIMATE CHANGE: Stationarity Is Dead: Whither Water Management? Climate change impacts on the hydrological cycle Coping with variability and change: Floods and droughts Integrating risks of climate change into water management
Kenneth E. Kunkel 0000-0001-6667-7047 Cooperative Institute for Climate and Satellites Cooperative Institute for Climate and Satellites - NC Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies Desert Research Institute Division of Atmospheric Sciences Illinois State Water Survey Midwestern Climate Center Midwestern Regional Climate Center National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Centers for Environmental Information NCEI National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Climatic Data Center North Carolina State University University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Department of Atmospheric Sciences 41.6: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 1.9: Proxy Temperature Reconstructions 28.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 31.4a: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 13.3a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days Trends and extremes in Northern Hemisphere snow characteristics 2.10: Observed Increase in Frost-Free Season Length 1.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 23.2b: Observed Number of Warm Nights 45.2c-b: Observed Winter Temperature 44.7: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 34.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 28.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 6. Climate of the Northwest U.S. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-6 SAP 3.1. Climate Models: An Assessment of Strengths and Limitations 36.6: Oklahoma Palmer Drought Severity Index 20.3: Observed and Projected Temperature Change for Puerto Rico 20.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 4. Climate of the U.S. Great Plains. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-4 45.4: Observed Annual Precipitation 1.4: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 5.7: California Palmer Drought Severity Index 46.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 38.4: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 26.2b: Observed Number of Warm Nights 13.4b: Observed Summer Precipitaton 12.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 35.2d-2: Observed Summer Precipitation 21.3: Drying Effect of Warmer Air on Plants and Soils 6.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 33.3b: Observed Annual Precipitation 3.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 29.2b: Observed Number of Warm Nights 4.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 20.2c: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 31.4c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Synthesis of public water supply use in the United States: Spatio-temporal patterns and socio-economic controls 6.2a: Observed Spring Temperature 18.2d: Observed Fall Precipitation 49.2c: Observed Number of Warm Nights 1.2b: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 1.2: Global Land and Ocean Temperature Anamolies The Nature and Impacts of the July 1999 Heat Wave in the Midwestern United States: Learning from the Lessons of 1995 22.3: Hydrologic Changes Across the Northern Great Plains 27.3b: Observed Number or Warm Nights 35.5: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 22.2c: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights -.4: Significantly More Warming Occurs Under Higher Greenhouse Gas Concentration Scenarios 18.8: Observed and Projected Change in Global Sea Level 31.4b: Observed Annual Precipitation 25.3d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 36.7: Projected Change in Summer Precipitation 32.2a-1: Observed Winter Temperature 50.4c: Observed Annual Precipitation 49.4: Ice Cover on Lake Mendota 2.6: Observed and Projected Change in Heavy Precipitation 17.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 31.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation nca3 chapter 29 : Research Needs for Climate and Global Change Assessments 29.5: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 33.3a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 27.2a: Observed Winter Temperature 14.2d-1: Observed Spring Precipitaton 39.3c: Observed Annual Precipitation 8.2b: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 29.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 49.2b: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 32.2d: Observed Annual Precipitation 17.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 8.1: Projected Change in Soil Moisture, End of Century, Higher Emissions 50.4a-1: Observed Winter Temperature 25.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 24.8: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 2.8: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 43.4c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 50.5: End of Season Snow Water Equivalent Depth at Lewis Lake Divide 37.2: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 18.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days Effects of ocean warming on growth and distribution of dinoflagellates associated with ciguatera fish poisoning in the Caribbean 26.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Days Detection and attribution of climate extremes in the observed record 38.6: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 25.3b: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 38.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 39.3d: Observed Summer Precipitaton Recent increases in U.S. heavy precipitation associated with tropical cyclones 24.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation -.1: Scenarios of Future Temperature Rise 50.4b: Observed Number of Very Cold Days 36.3a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days nca3 chapter 33 : Appendix 3: Climate Science Supplement 1.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 21.2a: Observed Number of Hot Days 4.4: Projected Changes in Seasonal Precipitation 22.2b: Observed Number of Warm Nights 35.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 32.8: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 39.7: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 14.7: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 24.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 18.7: Projected Change in Summer Precipitation 19.22: Projected Changes in Cooling Degree Days 46.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 10.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 25.2c: Observed Minimum Summer Temperature 16.6: Kansas Palmer Drought Severity Index 23.1: Monitoring Precipitation Across the Southern Great Plains 45.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 20.7: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 2.14: Projected Precipitation Change by Season 28.6: Lake Mead Elevation at Hoover Dam 47.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation Temporal variations of extreme precipitation events in the United States: 1895–2000 32.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 30.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 43.6: Texas Palmer Drought Severity Index 18.7: Projected Change in Summer Precipitation 35.4: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 31.2: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days Observational- and model-based trends and projections of extreme precipitation over the contiguous United States 3.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 15.2c: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 19.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 49.2a-2: Observed Summer Temperature 16.3d-2: Observed Summer Precipitaton Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 8. Climate of the Pacific Islands. U.S. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-8 17.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 33.21: Projected Wintertime Precipitation Changes 29.2a: Observed Number of Hot Days 49.2d-1: Observed Winter Precipitation Indicator: Heavy Precipitation 19.1: Historical Changes in Hot Days and Warm Nights 44.4d: April 1 Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) at Ben Lomond Peak, UT 45.5: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 18.4: Observed Annual Precipitation Probable maximum precipitation and climate change 2.15: Newer Simulations for Projected Precipitation Change (CMIP5 models) 21.5: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 34.12: Measurements of Surface Temperature and Sun’s Energy 6.5d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events The response of Great Lakes water levels to future climate scenarios with an emphasis on Lake Michigan-Huron 1.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 35.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 18.6: When it Rains, it Pours 30.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 1.4: Projected Global Temperatures 19.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 48.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 13.3c: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 25.9: Projected Shift in Agricultural Zones 2.2: Global Temperature and Carbon Dioxide 24.2b: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 42.2: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days Seasonal and regional variations in extreme precipitation event frequency using CMIP5 51.8: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 2.8: Projected Temperature Change 8.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 40.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 43e4c69f-2e48-4edc-ad0b-c0508a35f6d7 19.3: Historical Change in Heavy Precipitation 11.8: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 11.9: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 4.6: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 37.4a: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 26.4b: Observed Summer Temperature 18.2b: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 10.2c: Observed Summer Precipitation 9.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days Changes in weather and climate extremes: State of knowledge relevant to air and water quality in the United States 49.2d-2: Observed Summer Precipitaton 15.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 18.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 29.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 24.8: Observed and Projected Change in Global Sea Level 39.5: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 14.2a-1: Observed Spring Temperature 16.3c: Observed Annual Precipitation 5.8: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 36.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 42.6: Observed Summer Precipitaton 2.5: Observed and Projected Change in Seasonal Precipitation 46.2b: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 7.4: Observed Change in Heavy Precipitation 4.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 12.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 31.4d: Observed Monsoon Season Precipitation 1.3: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 3.8: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 26.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 23.2a: Observed Number of Hot Days Global land surface extremes of precipitation: Data limitations and trends 18.2: Projected Mid-Century Temperature Changes in the Midwest 44.4b: Observed Annual Precipitation 31.4a: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016 chapter 1 : Climate Change and Human Health 39.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 30.5: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 20.5: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 6dafc8d5-9e40-4dd6-a63d-d456ec61a551 27.6: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 13.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 27.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 11.2: Projected Change in the Number of Very Hot Days 6.5c-1: Observed Fall Precipitation 6.5a: Observed Number of Warm Nights 43.4b: Observed Annual Precipitation 22.3: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 30.2b: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 19.5: Projected Number of Warm Nights -.1: Global Temperatures Continue to Rise 39.2: Observed Number of Hot Days 991826ea-5f98-45f2-827e-8fdfc48d07fb 46.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 1.3: Projected Changes in U.S. Annual Average Temperatures 49.5: Observed Annual Precipitation 7.3: 2-Day Precipitation Events Exceeding 5-Year Recurrence Interval CMIP5 Climate Model Analyses: Climate Extremes in the United States 6.5b: Observed Annual Precipitation 41.5: Annual Snowfall Totals at Menno 45.2b: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 13.3d: Observed Annual Precipitation 37.5: End of Season Snow Water Equivalent Depth at Mt. Hood 43.4a: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 48.5: Observed Annual Precipitation 44.7: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 31.4c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 44.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 19.4: Historical Number of Warm Nights 18.5: Total Hurricane Events in Louisiana 23.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 44.4a: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 7.5: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 834f7624-40de-4a09-9ced-faaca30d4d6d 1.3: Projected Changes in Temperature and Precipitation by Mid-Century 5.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change cfafefc7-f04f-4cb3-8e7e-2978c92e2ae4 12.8: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 34.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Days 40.2b: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 18.4: Observed Annual Precipitation Monitoring and Understanding Trends in Extreme Storms: State of Knowledge nca4 chapter 21 : Midwest 35.2b: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 30.4: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events fbad1b23-b576-4996-a75a-3fe2a1c8dde9 19.5: Projected Change in Number of Consecutive Dry Days 33.5: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 23.4: Observed Annual Precipitation A preliminary synthesis of modeled climate change impacts on U.S. regional ozone concentrations 36.3b: Observed Number of Extremely Warm Nights 13.8: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 14.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 45.2a: Observed Number of Hot Days 12.5: Observed Annual Precipitation 48.2: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 42.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 35.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 10.3: Observed and Projected Changes in Frost-Free Season 46.7: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 47.5: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 31.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 33.5: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 30.7: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 33.3d: Total Hurricane Events in North Carolina 34.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 33.3b: Observed Annual Precipitation 16.3b: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 8.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 5.2a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 25.2a: Observed Summer Temperature 33.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 13.2a: Observed Spring Temperature 18.2c-1: Observed Spring Precipitation 50.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 2.13: Annual Maximum Precipitation and Changes in Consecutive Dry Days 45.2c-a: Observed Summer Temperature 31.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 27.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 37.6: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 19.2a-1: Observed Winter Temperature 16.3d-1: Observed Spring Precipitation 24.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 42.4: Observed Annual Precipitation 35.2d: Observed Winter Precipitation The seasonal nature of extreme hydrological events in the northeastern United States 24.4: Observed Summer Temperature A5.10: Observed and Projected Changes in Global Temperature 37.7: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 22.4: Annual Lake-Wide Average Water Levels for Lake Michigan-Huron 41.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Days 37.4b: Observed Number of Warm Nights 33.2b: Observed Summer Temperature 10.4: Observed Annual Precipitation 17.4: Projected Change in Number of Days Over 95°F 10.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change How spatially coherent and statistically robust are temporal changes in extreme precipitation in the contiguous USA? 5bd64870-4e8e-45cb-9b2c-83c52f5af397 Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 1. Climate of the Northeast U.S. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-1 26.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 1.16: Projected Change in Very Hot Days by 2100 in Phoenix, Arizona 16.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 24.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 14.6: Annual Lake-Wide Average Water Levels for Lake Michigan-Huron 40.5: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 35.2d-1: Observed Winter Precipitation -.3: Sensitivity Analysis of Differences in Modeling Approaches 3.2b-2: Observed Minimum Summer Temperature 35.5: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 31.5: Storage Levels in the Elephant Butte Reservoir 38.2b: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 6.7: Projected Changes in Annual Average Temperatures 14.3: Growing Season Lengthens 19.3: Projected Change in Number of Warm Nights 18.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 34.9: Decade-Scale Changes in Average Temperature for U.S. Regions 27.3c: Observed Annual Precipitation 8.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 26.4a: Observed Winter Temperature 1.4: Projected Changes in Hottest/Coldest and Wettest/Driest Day of the Year 22.2d: Observed Annual Precipitation 10.2a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 47.7: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 24.4: Observed Summer Temperature 15.3b: Observed Summer Precipitaton 24.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 44.2: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 9.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 31.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 31.4b: Observed Annual Precipitation 30.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 9.2b: Observed Number of Nights Below Freezing 6.3: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 20.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 44.6: Annual Average Water Levels in the Great Salt Lake at Saltair Boat Harbor 33.22: Projected Summertime Precipitation Changes 39.3b: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 48.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 15.3a: Observed Spring Precipitation 40.4: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 1a061197-95cf-47bd-9db4-f661c711a174 10.5: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 50.4d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 4.4: Observed Summer Temperature 19.2b: Observed Number of Hot Days 8.6: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level Regional Surface Climate Conditions in CMIP3 and CMIP5 for the United States: Differences, Similarities, and Implications for the U.S. National Climate Assessment 1.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 3.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 2.6: Projected Change in Average Annual Precipitation A5.20: Extreme Temperature and Precipitation Events 32.2b: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 16.3a: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 32.2a-2: Observed Summer Temperature 7447d9e8-b0d8-4009-af97-fce115235283 49.2a-1: Observed Winter Temperature 35.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 19.6: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 2. Climate of the Southeast U.S. NOAA Technical Report 142-2 3.2b-1: Observed Maximum Summer Temperature 4f071049-4952-4e2b-ac40-9942a7752382 A5.18: Short-Term Variability Versus Long-Term Trend 1.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 1.8: 1700 Years of Global Temperature Change from Proxy Data 18.2c: Observed Spring Precipitation 41.3a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 33.4: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 16.2b: Observed Summer Temperature 13.6: Annual Lake-Wide Average Water Levels for Lake Michigan-Huron 26fc56f4-b4e0-425b-adc8-14c6d961d558 34.5: Observed Annual Precipitation 14.2a-2: Observed Summer Temperature 6.8: Colorado Palmer Drought Severity Index 44.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016 Appendix 1: Technical Support Document 33.4: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 26.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation -.6: Extreme Precipitation Has Increased Across Much of the United States 7.7: Projected Change in Daily, 20-year Extreme Precipitation 7.8: Change in the Number of Days Within Precipitation Percentile Intervals 22cf98ca-20af-4fc0-ba4d-ef7234aa5be5 Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 5. Climate of the Midwest U.S. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-5 10.3: Texas Summer 2011: Record Heat and Drought 15.4: Observed Annual Precipitation Can CGCMs Simulate the Twentieth-Century “Warming Hole” in the Central United States? 15.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 44.5: Utah Palmer Drought Severity Index 27.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 5.9: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 12.6: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 25.3c: Observed Annual Precipitation 32.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 33.3d: Total Hurricane Events in North Carolina 35.2e: Observed Summer Precipitation 50.2: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 37.4d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 2.7: Observed U.S. Temperature Change 10.4: Changes in Length of Growing Season 49.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 46.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 18.5: Total Hurricane Events in Louisiana 18.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 22.5: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 15.2d: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 19.5: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 18.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 29.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 3.6: Arizona Palmer Drought Severity Index 31.5: Storage Levels in Elephant Butte Reservoir A5.11: Comparison of Climate Models and Observed Temperature Change 46.6: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 36.3d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 7.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 21.2b: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events U.S. temperature and drought: Recent anomalies and trends 30.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 21.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 10.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 32.6: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 12961b12-f04c-41f6-9603-cdc65291eb89 31.7: New Mexico Palmer Drought Severity Index 49.6: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 25.1: Temperature Has Increased Across the Southwest 34.6: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 7.7: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 3.5: Observed Monsoon Season Precipitation 31.7: New Mexico Palmer Drought Severity Index a7c5f0aa-db53-4965-bd56-88e8f7a87a89 39.3a: Observed Number of Warm Nights 17.2b-2: Observed Summer Temperature A framework for examining climate-driven changes to the seasonality and geographical range of coastal pathogens and harmful algae 34.23: Emissions Levels Determine Temperature Rises 45.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 17.2b-1: Observed Winter Temperature nca3 chapter 34 : Appendix 4: Frequently Asked Questions 43.8: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 48.6: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 34.8: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation Monitoring and Understanding Changes in Heat Waves, Cold Waves, Floods, and Droughts in the United States: State of Knowledge 12.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 28.9: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 24.2a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 24.2b: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 29.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change A5.14: Temperature Change Varies by Region 1.2b: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 3.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 20.4: Projected Precipitation Change for Puerto Rico 36.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights Monitoring and Understanding Changes in Extremes: Extratropical Storms, Winds, and Waves 3.7: Lake Mead Water Level at Hoover Dam 18.2e: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 7.2b: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 14.4: Observed Annual Precipitation fe1ad9b9-3516-4623-aa66-4956ceec6891 6.5: Projected Changes in Key Climate Variables Affecting Agricultural Productivity 7.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 18.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 19.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 44.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 42.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 41.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 16.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 7.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 2.27: Ice Cover in the Great Lakes 2.9: Projected Temperature Change by 2071-2099 (CMIP5 models) 40.2a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 33.2b: Observed Winter Temperature 48.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 19.2a-2: Observed Summer Temperature 2.17: Observed Change in Very Heavy Precipitation 4.2b: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 36.2: Observed Summer Temperature 23.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 35.2b: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 40.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 22.2a: Observed Number of Hot Days 15.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 2.5: Projected Change in Average Annual Temperature 44.5: Utah Palmer Drought Severity Index 7.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 29.4: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 2.4: Observed and Projected Changes in Annual Average Temperature 42.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 18.2b: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing a405fab3-ee62-401c-8d93-347261d9eab9 50.4a-2: Observed Summer Temperature 45.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 3.3: Observed Number of Extremely Warm Nights 1.4: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 25.2b: Observed Maximum Summer Temperature 17.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 27.2b: Observed Summer Temperature 41.3b: Observed Number or Warm Nights 28.4: Observed Annual Precipitation 44.2: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 33.3c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 44.4b: Observed Annual Precipitation 21.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 41.7: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 16.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 33.2a: Observed Summer Temperature 22.2: Projected Changes in Very Hot Days, Cool Days, and Heavy Precipitation 46.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change Temporal variations in frost-free season in the United States: 1895–2000 nca4 chapter A3 : Appendix 3: Data Tools and Scenario Products 44.4c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 20.2d: Observed Annual Precipitation 26.5: End of Season Snow Water Equivalent Depth at Noisy Basin 16.2a: Observed Spring Temperature nca4 chapter A5 : Appendix 5: Frequently Asked Questions 44.6: Water Levels in the Great Salt Lake at Saltair Boat Harbor 44.4a: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights beed84d6-d0f9-4c33-a8d3-808ed6eb6e3b 6.7: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 7.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 7.2a: Observed Number of Hot Days 1.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 4.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 1.2: Change in Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 25.3a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 49.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Days 31.2: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days Impacts, Risks, and Adaptation in the United States: The Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume II 34.19: Observed and Projected U.S. Temperature Change 47.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 41.3c: Observed Annual Precipitation 16.7: Projected Change in Summer Precipitation 27.3a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 43.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 13.3b: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 7. Climate of Alaska. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-7 22.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 9.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 26.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 3.2a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 37.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 14.2b: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 14.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 1.2d: Total Hurricane Events in Alabama 50.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 18.7: Ice Cover in the Great Lakes 83ef5674-8aa8-40fe-8c7e-4f0ac3d140d8 32.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 48.7: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 33.2a: Observed Winter Temperature 40.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 21.7: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 34.2: Observed Number of Very Hot Days nca3 chapter 2 : Our Changing Climate 13.4a: Observed Spring Precipitation 35.4: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 23.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 21.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 28.5: Nevada Palmer Drought Severity Index 5.2c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 10.2b: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 2.11: Projected Changes in Frost-Free Season Length 2d6fb90b-7d3d-4fce-8f63-36459f80d366 5.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 6.5c-2: Observed Spring Precipitation 49.8: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 9.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 6.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 43.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 41.2b: Observed Summer Temperature 23.2c: Observed Number of Very Cold Days 24.7: Projected Change in Summer Precipitation 15.2b: Observed Number of Very Hot Days A surface energy budget view of the 1988 midwestern United States drought 13.2b: Observed Summer Temperature Trends in Twentieth-Century U.S. Snowfall Using a Quality-Controlled Dataset 31.4d: Observed Monsoon Season Precipitation 46.4: Observed Summer Temperature 35.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 43.2: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 8.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 38.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 24.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 24.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 19.2: Projected Change in Number of Hot Days 31.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 41.2a: Observed Winter Temperature 14.2d-2: Observed Summer Precipitaton 17.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 14.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 25.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 17.2a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 17.4: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 37.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 24.7: Projected Change in Summer Precipitation 9.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events A new look at lake-effect snowfall trends in the Laurentian Great Lakes using a temporally homogeneous data set 44.4d: April 1 Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) at Ben Lomond Peak, UT 4.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 40.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change c8484765-3d50-48dc-a2e3-09cb56610265 18.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 4.2a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 2.4: Emissions Levels Determine Temperature Rises 36.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 24.2d: Observed Summer Precipitation 20.2b: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 27.3d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 25.4: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 25.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 25.10: Projected Increases in Extreme Heat c6e6a4b8-840f-4d4c-9487-9699fb94dd31 28.2: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 35.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 17.5: Projected Change in Number of Nights Below 32°F 33.3c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 006264b2-8594-4e09-9430-a1d0cc056ff7 44.4c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 41.3d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 1.2d: Total Hurricane Events in Alabama, 1900-2013 43.9: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 9.6: Projected Change in Summer Precipitation 36.3c: Observed Annual Precipitation 33.6: Observed and Projected Change in Global Sea Level 1.5: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 1.3: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 5.2b: Observed Annual Precipitation 19.15: Projected Changes in Plant Hardiness Zones 11.3: Projected Change in Number of Days with Heavy Precipitation 39.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 19.2: Historical Change in Freeze-Free Season Length 5.6: Storage Levels in the Shasta Dam Reservoir 21.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 12.2: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 38.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change nca4 chapter 2 : Our Changing Climate 29.6: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 9. Climate of the Contiguous United States. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-9 Climate Science Special Report: The Fourth National Climate Assessment: Volume I 4.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 4.3: Increasing Numbers of Cooling Degree Days 35.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 10.6: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 26.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 13.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 33.20: Projected Annually-Averaged Temperature C hange 17.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 3. Climate of the Midwest U.S. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-3 Trends in Twentieth-Century U.S. Extreme Snowfall Seasons 7.6: Future Projection of Regional Extreme Precipitation of 2-Day Duration and 5 Year Return 30.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 38.2a: Observed Number of Hot Days 8.4: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 35.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 19.4: Projected Change in Number of Heavy Precipitation Days 38.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 15.2a: Observed Summer Temperature 5.2d: Observed Winter Precipitation Meteorological Causes of the Secular Variations in Observed Extreme Precipitation Events for the Conterminous United States 20.4: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 32.2c: Observed Number of Warm Nights 50.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 8.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 23.4: Projected Increase in Number of Days Above 100°F 37.4c: Observed Annual Precipitation 49.7: Annual Lake-Wide Average Water Levels for Lake Michigan-Huron 24.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 18.8: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 21.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 14.2c: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights Reply to “Comments on ‘Monitoring and understanding trends in extreme storms: State of knowledge’” nca4 chapter 19 : Southeast 46.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 33.6: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 6.2b: Observed Summer Temperature 6.6: End of Season Snow Water Equivalent Depth at Tower 9.2d: Total Hurricane Events in Florida, 1900-2013 1.5: Observed and Projected Change in Global Sea Level 18.2c-2: Observed Fall Precipitation 19.4: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 42.7: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 21.10: Historical and Projected Annual Number of Days Above 100°F for Chicago
Howard Kunreuther National Bureau of Economic Research University of Pennsylvania Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania Wharton Risk Management and Decision Processes Center Wharton School of Business Department of Operations and Information Management Redesigning Flood Insurance nca3 chapter 26 : Decision Support: Connecting Science, Risk Perception, and Decisions Risk management and climate change Catastrophe Modeling: A New Ap... Climate Change, Insurability of Large-Scale Disasters and the Emerging Liability Challenge. NBER Working Paper 12821 A Methodological Approach for Pricing Flood Insurance and Evaluating Loss Reduction Measures: Application to Texas, Wharton Risk Management Center and CoreLogic, Philadelphia, PA and Santa Ana, CA At War with the Weather: Manag... At War with the Weather: Manag... Making America more resilient toward natural disasters: A call for action Risk Analysis and Risk Management in an Uncertain World Decision Processes for Low Probability Events: Policy Implications Risk, Media and Stigma: Unders...
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