People


Name ORCID Organizations Publications
Christian A. Kull 0000-0002-7516-7898 Monash University School of Geography and Environmental Science Fire in the Earth System
Jaakko Kullberg Poleward shifts in geographical ranges of butterfly species associated with regional warming
Markku Kulmala 0000-0003-3464-7825 University of Helsinki Department of Physics Global observations of aerosol–cloud–precipitation–climate interactions
Andrew Kulmatiski 0000-0001-9977-5508 Utah State University Department of Plants, Soils and Climate Woody plant encroachment facilitated by increased precipitation intensity
Scott Kulp 0000-0003-1435-7943 Climate Central Evolving understanding of Antarctic ice‐sheet physics and ambiguity in probabilistic sea‐level projections Carbon choices determine US cities committed to futures below sea level Rapid escalation of coastal flood exposure in US municipalities from sea level rise Consequences of twenty-first-century policy for multi-millennial climate and sea-level change
Michio Kumagai 0000-0002-0648-3061 Ritsumeikan University Rapid and highly variable warming of lake surface waters around the globe
Arun Kumar National Weather Service Climate Prediction Center National Weather Service Environmental Modeling Center National Weather Service National Centers for Environmental Prediction Annual Cycle of Pacific–North American Seasonal Predictability Associated with Different Phases of ENSO Causes and predictability of the 2012 Great Plains drought Hurricanes and Climate: The U.S. CLIVAR Working Group on Hurricanes Anatomy of an Extreme Event The making of an extreme event: Putting the pieces together Why Did Large Differences Arise in the Sea Surface Temperature Datasets across the Tropical Pacific during 2012? A retrospective assessment of National Centers for Environmental Prediction climate model–based ensemble hydrologic forecasting in the western United States Robustness of the nonlinear climate response to ENSO’s extreme phases Causes of the 2011–14 California drought Atmospheric Response Patterns Associated with Tropical Forcing
Devashish Kumar 0000-0003-1495-5089 Northeastern University Sustainability and Data Sciences Laboratory Regional and seasonal intercomparison of CMIP3 and CMIP5 climate model ensembles for temperature and precipitation
Emani Kumar ICLEI Local Governments for Sustainability Meta-principles for developing smart, sustainable, and healthy cities
Naresh Kumar Electric Power Research Institute EPRI Indian Agricultural Research Institute Centre for Environment Science and Climate Resilient Agriculture Climatic effects of 1950-2050 changes in US anthropogenic aerosols - Part 1: Aerosol trends and radiative forcing How do various maize crop models vary in their responses to climate change factors? Climatic effects of 1950–2050 changes in US anthropogenic aerosols – Part 2: Climate response
Ravind Kumar Fiji Meteorological Service An updated assessment of trends and variability in total and extreme rainfall in the western Pacific
Roselyn Kumar 0000-0002-3940-0488 University of the South Pacific Pacific Studies Culturally grounded responses to coastal change on islands in the Federated States of Micronesia, northwest Pacific Ocean
Sanjiv Kumar Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies North American climate in CMIP5 experiments: Part III: Assessment of twenty-first-century projections Intermodel variability and mechanism attribution of central and southeastern U.S. anomalous cooling in the twentieth century as simulated by CMIP5 models North American Climate in CMIP5 Experiments. Part II: Evaluation of Historical Simulations of Intraseasonal to Decadal Variability
Soora Naresh Kumar Indian Agricultural Research Institute Centre for Environment Science and Climate Resilient Agriculture Rising temperatures reduce global wheat production Similar estimates of temperature impacts on global wheat yield by three independent methods
Christian D. Kummerow Colorado State University Department of Atmospheric Science The Global Precipitation Measurement Mission
Michaël Kummert 0000-0003-1606-8344 Polytechnique Montreal Department of Mechanical Engineering Designing net-zero energy buildings for the future climate, not for the past
Lee Kump The Pennsylvania State University Department of Geosciences The Geological Record of Ocean Acidification
Zbigniew W. Kundzewicz Polish Academy of Sciences Institute for Agricultural and Forest Environment Polish Academy of Sciences Research Centre for Agricultural and Forest Environment Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research Climate change impacts on the hydrological cycle Coping with variability and change: Floods and droughts Integrating risks of climate change into water management CLIMATE CHANGE: Stationarity Is Dead: Whither Water Management?
Kenneth E. Kunkel 0000-0001-6667-7047 Cooperative Institute for Climate and Satellites Cooperative Institute for Climate and Satellites - NC Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies Desert Research Institute Division of Atmospheric Sciences Illinois State Water Survey Midwestern Climate Center Midwestern Regional Climate Center National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Centers for Environmental Information NCEI National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Climatic Data Center North Carolina State University University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Department of Atmospheric Sciences 22.2d: Observed Annual Precipitation 10.2a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 1.4: Projected Changes in Hottest/Coldest and Wettest/Driest Day of the Year 47.7: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 8.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 27.3c: Observed Annual Precipitation 18.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 34.9: Decade-Scale Changes in Average Temperature for U.S. Regions 19.3: Projected Change in Number of Warm Nights 26.4a: Observed Winter Temperature 9.2b: Observed Number of Nights Below Freezing 44.6: Annual Average Water Levels in the Great Salt Lake at Saltair Boat Harbor 6.3: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 20.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 24.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 44.2: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 24.4: Observed Summer Temperature 15.3b: Observed Summer Precipitaton 31.4b: Observed Annual Precipitation 30.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 31.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 9.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 10.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change How spatially coherent and statistically robust are temporal changes in extreme precipitation in the contiguous USA? 5bd64870-4e8e-45cb-9b2c-83c52f5af397 17.4: Projected Change in Number of Days Over 95°F 10.4: Observed Annual Precipitation 26.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 1.16: Projected Change in Very Hot Days by 2100 in Phoenix, Arizona Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 1. Climate of the Northeast U.S. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-1 A5.10: Observed and Projected Changes in Global Temperature 24.4: Observed Summer Temperature 33.2b: Observed Summer Temperature 37.4b: Observed Number of Warm Nights 37.7: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 41.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Days 22.4: Annual Lake-Wide Average Water Levels for Lake Michigan-Huron 35.5: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 31.5: Storage Levels in the Elephant Butte Reservoir 3.2b-2: Observed Minimum Summer Temperature 35.2d-1: Observed Winter Precipitation -.3: Sensitivity Analysis of Differences in Modeling Approaches 40.5: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 14.6: Annual Lake-Wide Average Water Levels for Lake Michigan-Huron 14.3: Growing Season Lengthens 6.7: Projected Changes in Annual Average Temperatures 38.2b: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 16.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 24.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 25.2a: Observed Summer Temperature 33.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 13.2a: Observed Spring Temperature 16.3b: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 34.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 33.3b: Observed Annual Precipitation 5.2a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 8.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change The seasonal nature of extreme hydrological events in the northeastern United States 24.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 42.4: Observed Annual Precipitation 35.2d: Observed Winter Precipitation 16.3d-1: Observed Spring Precipitation 19.2a-1: Observed Winter Temperature 2.13: Annual Maximum Precipitation and Changes in Consecutive Dry Days 45.2c-a: Observed Summer Temperature 50.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 18.2c-1: Observed Spring Precipitation 27.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 37.6: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 31.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 13.8: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 36.3b: Observed Number of Extremely Warm Nights 33.5: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 19.5: Projected Change in Number of Consecutive Dry Days A preliminary synthesis of modeled climate change impacts on U.S. regional ozone concentrations 23.4: Observed Annual Precipitation 46.7: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 10.3: Observed and Projected Changes in Frost-Free Season 42.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 35.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 30.7: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 33.3d: Total Hurricane Events in North Carolina 33.5: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 47.5: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 31.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 12.5: Observed Annual Precipitation 45.2a: Observed Number of Hot Days 14.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 48.2: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 23.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 44.4a: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 5.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 1.3: Projected Changes in Temperature and Precipitation by Mid-Century 7.5: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 834f7624-40de-4a09-9ced-faaca30d4d6d 44.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 18.5: Total Hurricane Events in Louisiana 19.4: Historical Number of Warm Nights fbad1b23-b576-4996-a75a-3fe2a1c8dde9 35.2b: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 30.4: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 18.4: Observed Annual Precipitation Monitoring and Understanding Trends in Extreme Storms: State of Knowledge nca4 chapter 21 : Midwest 34.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Days 40.2b: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 12.8: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation cfafefc7-f04f-4cb3-8e7e-2978c92e2ae4 1.3: Projected Changes in U.S. Annual Average Temperatures 46.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 991826ea-5f98-45f2-827e-8fdfc48d07fb 39.2: Observed Number of Hot Days -.1: Global Temperatures Continue to Rise 49.5: Observed Annual Precipitation 22.3: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 43.4b: Observed Annual Precipitation 6.5a: Observed Number of Warm Nights 6.5c-1: Observed Fall Precipitation 19.5: Projected Number of Warm Nights 30.2b: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 48.5: Observed Annual Precipitation 43.4a: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 13.3d: Observed Annual Precipitation 37.5: End of Season Snow Water Equivalent Depth at Mt. Hood 44.7: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 31.4c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events CMIP5 Climate Model Analyses: Climate Extremes in the United States 6.5b: Observed Annual Precipitation 7.3: 2-Day Precipitation Events Exceeding 5-Year Recurrence Interval 45.2b: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 41.5: Annual Snowfall Totals at Menno 7.4: Observed Change in Heavy Precipitation 46.2b: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 12.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 4.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 31.4d: Observed Monsoon Season Precipitation 36.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 5.8: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 16.3c: Observed Annual Precipitation 14.2a-1: Observed Spring Temperature 2.5: Observed and Projected Change in Seasonal Precipitation 42.6: Observed Summer Precipitaton 27.6: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 13.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 30.5: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 20.5: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 6dafc8d5-9e40-4dd6-a63d-d456ec61a551 39.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 27.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 11.2: Projected Change in the Number of Very Hot Days 44.4b: Observed Annual Precipitation 18.2: Projected Mid-Century Temperature Changes in the Midwest Global land surface extremes of precipitation: Data limitations and trends 26.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 23.2a: Observed Number of Hot Days 3.8: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 1.3: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 31.4a: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016 chapter 1 : Climate Change and Human Health 9.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days Changes in weather and climate extremes: State of knowledge relevant to air and water quality in the United States 18.2b: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 26.4b: Observed Summer Temperature 37.4a: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 10.2c: Observed Summer Precipitation 29.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 24.8: Observed and Projected Change in Global Sea Level 15.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 18.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 39.5: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 49.2d-2: Observed Summer Precipitaton 13.3c: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 25.9: Projected Shift in Agricultural Zones 48.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 2.2: Global Temperature and Carbon Dioxide 19.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 1.4: Projected Global Temperatures 30.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 18.6: When it Rains, it Pours 11.8: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 19.3: Historical Change in Heavy Precipitation 43e4c69f-2e48-4edc-ad0b-c0508a35f6d7 40.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 8.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 4.6: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 11.9: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level Seasonal and regional variations in extreme precipitation event frequency using CMIP5 42.2: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 24.2b: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 2.8: Projected Temperature Change 51.8: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 44.4d: April 1 Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) at Ben Lomond Peak, UT 19.1: Historical Changes in Hot Days and Warm Nights Indicator: Heavy Precipitation 45.5: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 16.3d-2: Observed Summer Precipitaton 49.2d-1: Observed Winter Precipitation 29.2a: Observed Number of Hot Days 33.21: Projected Wintertime Precipitation Changes 17.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 8. Climate of the Pacific Islands. U.S. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-8 6.5d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events The response of Great Lakes water levels to future climate scenarios with an emphasis on Lake Michigan-Huron 35.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 1.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 21.5: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 2.15: Newer Simulations for Projected Precipitation Change (CMIP5 models) Probable maximum precipitation and climate change 18.4: Observed Annual Precipitation 34.12: Measurements of Surface Temperature and Sun’s Energy 45.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 20.7: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level Temporal variations of extreme precipitation events in the United States: 1895–2000 47.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 28.6: Lake Mead Elevation at Hoover Dam 2.14: Projected Precipitation Change by Season 23.1: Monitoring Precipitation Across the Southern Great Plains 3.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 49.2a-2: Observed Summer Temperature 19.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 15.2c: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 43.6: Texas Palmer Drought Severity Index 30.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 32.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 31.2: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days Observational- and model-based trends and projections of extreme precipitation over the contiguous United States 35.4: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 18.7: Projected Change in Summer Precipitation 24.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation -.1: Scenarios of Future Temperature Rise 38.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 39.3d: Observed Summer Precipitaton Recent increases in U.S. heavy precipitation associated with tropical cyclones 1.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 21.2a: Observed Number of Hot Days 4.4: Projected Changes in Seasonal Precipitation 50.4b: Observed Number of Very Cold Days 36.3a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days nca3 chapter 33 : Appendix 3: Climate Science Supplement 26.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Days Effects of ocean warming on growth and distribution of dinoflagellates associated with ciguatera fish poisoning in the Caribbean 18.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 37.2: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 25.3b: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 38.6: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation Detection and attribution of climate extremes in the observed record 16.6: Kansas Palmer Drought Severity Index 25.2c: Observed Minimum Summer Temperature 10.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 32.8: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 35.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 22.2b: Observed Number of Warm Nights 46.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 24.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 19.22: Projected Changes in Cooling Degree Days 18.7: Projected Change in Summer Precipitation 14.7: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 39.7: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 27.2a: Observed Winter Temperature 33.3a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days nca3 chapter 29 : Research Needs for Climate and Global Change Assessments 29.5: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 31.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 39.3c: Observed Annual Precipitation 14.2d-1: Observed Spring Precipitaton 24.8: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 50.4a-1: Observed Winter Temperature 8.1: Projected Change in Soil Moisture, End of Century, Higher Emissions 25.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 50.5: End of Season Snow Water Equivalent Depth at Lewis Lake Divide 2.8: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 43.4c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 49.2b: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 8.2b: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 29.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 17.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 32.2d: Observed Annual Precipitation -.4: Significantly More Warming Occurs Under Higher Greenhouse Gas Concentration Scenarios 22.2c: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 35.5: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 27.3b: Observed Number or Warm Nights 1.2: Global Land and Ocean Temperature Anamolies 1.2b: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights The Nature and Impacts of the July 1999 Heat Wave in the Midwestern United States: Learning from the Lessons of 1995 22.3: Hydrologic Changes Across the Northern Great Plains 49.4: Ice Cover on Lake Mendota 50.4c: Observed Annual Precipitation 17.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 2.6: Observed and Projected Change in Heavy Precipitation 31.4b: Observed Annual Precipitation 18.8: Observed and Projected Change in Global Sea Level 32.2a-1: Observed Winter Temperature 36.7: Projected Change in Summer Precipitation 25.3d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 4.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 29.2b: Observed Number of Warm Nights 3.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 12.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 26.2b: Observed Number of Warm Nights 13.4b: Observed Summer Precipitaton 38.4: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 33.3b: Observed Annual Precipitation 6.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 21.3: Drying Effect of Warmer Air on Plants and Soils 35.2d-2: Observed Summer Precipitation 49.2c: Observed Number of Warm Nights 18.2d: Observed Fall Precipitation 6.2a: Observed Spring Temperature Synthesis of public water supply use in the United States: Spatio-temporal patterns and socio-economic controls 31.4c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation 20.2c: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 45.2c-b: Observed Winter Temperature 44.7: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 34.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 23.2b: Observed Number of Warm Nights Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 6. Climate of the Northwest U.S. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-6 SAP 3.1. Climate Models: An Assessment of Strengths and Limitations 28.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 28.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 41.6: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 1.9: Proxy Temperature Reconstructions 1.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 13.3a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 2.10: Observed Increase in Frost-Free Season Length Trends and extremes in Northern Hemisphere snow characteristics 31.4a: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 5.7: California Palmer Drought Severity Index 46.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 20.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 4. Climate of the U.S. Great Plains. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-4 45.4: Observed Annual Precipitation 36.6: Oklahoma Palmer Drought Severity Index 20.3: Observed and Projected Temperature Change for Puerto Rico 1.4: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation Reply to “Comments on ‘Monitoring and understanding trends in extreme storms: State of knowledge’” 21.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 18.8: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 14.2c: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 6.2b: Observed Summer Temperature 6.6: End of Season Snow Water Equivalent Depth at Tower 33.6: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 46.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton nca4 chapter 19 : Southeast 8.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 50.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 20.4: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 32.2c: Observed Number of Warm Nights 24.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 49.7: Annual Lake-Wide Average Water Levels for Lake Michigan-Huron 23.4: Projected Increase in Number of Days Above 100°F 37.4c: Observed Annual Precipitation 19.4: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 21.10: Historical and Projected Annual Number of Days Above 100°F for Chicago 42.7: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 9.2d: Total Hurricane Events in Florida, 1900-2013 18.2c-2: Observed Fall Precipitation 1.5: Observed and Projected Change in Global Sea Level 17.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 33.20: Projected Annually-Averaged Temperature C hange 13.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 26.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 10.6: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level Trends in Twentieth-Century U.S. Extreme Snowfall Seasons Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 3. Climate of the Midwest U.S. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-3 Climate Science Special Report: The Fourth National Climate Assessment: Volume I Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 9. Climate of the Contiguous United States. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-9 4.3: Increasing Numbers of Cooling Degree Days 35.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 4.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 38.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 5.2d: Observed Winter Precipitation 15.2a: Observed Summer Temperature Meteorological Causes of the Secular Variations in Observed Extreme Precipitation Events for the Conterminous United States 7.6: Future Projection of Regional Extreme Precipitation of 2-Day Duration and 5 Year Return 8.4: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 35.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 19.4: Projected Change in Number of Heavy Precipitation Days 38.2a: Observed Number of Hot Days 30.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 5.2b: Observed Annual Precipitation 1.3: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 1.5: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 19.15: Projected Changes in Plant Hardiness Zones 43.9: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 44.4c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 41.3d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 1.2d: Total Hurricane Events in Alabama, 1900-2013 33.6: Observed and Projected Change in Global Sea Level 36.3c: Observed Annual Precipitation 9.6: Projected Change in Summer Precipitation 5.6: Storage Levels in the Shasta Dam Reservoir nca4 chapter 2 : Our Changing Climate 29.6: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 21.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 12.2: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 38.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 19.2: Historical Change in Freeze-Free Season Length 39.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 11.3: Projected Change in Number of Days with Heavy Precipitation 25.4: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 36.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 2.4: Emissions Levels Determine Temperature Rises 27.3d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 20.2b: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 24.2d: Observed Summer Precipitation 006264b2-8594-4e09-9430-a1d0cc056ff7 33.3c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 35.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 28.2: Observed Number of Very Hot Days c6e6a4b8-840f-4d4c-9487-9699fb94dd31 25.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 25.10: Projected Increases in Extreme Heat 17.5: Projected Change in Number of Nights Below 32°F 14.2d-2: Observed Summer Precipitaton 41.2a: Observed Winter Temperature 25.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 17.2a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 14.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 17.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 24.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 38.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 8.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 31.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 24.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 19.2: Projected Change in Number of Hot Days 18.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events c8484765-3d50-48dc-a2e3-09cb56610265 4.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 40.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 4.2a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 37.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 17.4: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights A new look at lake-effect snowfall trends in the Laurentian Great Lakes using a temporally homogeneous data set 44.4d: April 1 Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) at Ben Lomond Peak, UT 9.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 24.7: Projected Change in Summer Precipitation 6.5c-2: Observed Spring Precipitation 49.8: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 5.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 2d6fb90b-7d3d-4fce-8f63-36459f80d366 24.7: Projected Change in Summer Precipitation 23.2c: Observed Number of Very Cold Days 43.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 41.2b: Observed Summer Temperature 9.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 6.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights nca3 chapter 2 : Our Changing Climate 28.5: Nevada Palmer Drought Severity Index 21.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 5.2c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 10.2b: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 2.11: Projected Changes in Frost-Free Season Length 23.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 35.4: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 13.4a: Observed Spring Precipitation 46.4: Observed Summer Temperature 31.4d: Observed Monsoon Season Precipitation 35.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 43.2: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 15.2b: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 13.2b: Observed Summer Temperature Trends in Twentieth-Century U.S. Snowfall Using a Quality-Controlled Dataset A surface energy budget view of the 1988 midwestern United States drought 37.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 14.2b: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 50.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 1.2d: Total Hurricane Events in Alabama 14.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 13.3b: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 43.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 3.2a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 26.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 9.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 22.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 7. Climate of Alaska. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-7 34.2: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 40.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 21.7: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 32.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 83ef5674-8aa8-40fe-8c7e-4f0ac3d140d8 18.7: Ice Cover in the Great Lakes 33.2a: Observed Winter Temperature 48.7: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 44.4a: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 7.2a: Observed Number of Hot Days 7.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton beed84d6-d0f9-4c33-a8d3-808ed6eb6e3b 6.7: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 20.2d: Observed Annual Precipitation 44.6: Water Levels in the Great Salt Lake at Saltair Boat Harbor nca4 chapter A5 : Appendix 5: Frequently Asked Questions 26.5: End of Season Snow Water Equivalent Depth at Noisy Basin 16.2a: Observed Spring Temperature 34.19: Observed and Projected U.S. Temperature Change 47.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change Impacts, Risks, and Adaptation in the United States: The Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume II 27.3a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 16.7: Projected Change in Summer Precipitation 41.3c: Observed Annual Precipitation 25.3a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 4.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 1.2: Change in Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 1.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 31.2: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 49.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Days 50.4a-2: Observed Summer Temperature a405fab3-ee62-401c-8d93-347261d9eab9 18.2b: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 42.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 27.2b: Observed Summer Temperature 17.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 25.2b: Observed Maximum Summer Temperature 1.4: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 45.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 3.3: Observed Number of Extremely Warm Nights 7.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 2.4: Observed and Projected Changes in Annual Average Temperature 29.4: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 46.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change Temporal variations in frost-free season in the United States: 1895–2000 44.4c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events nca4 chapter A3 : Appendix 3: Data Tools and Scenario Products 44.2: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 33.3c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 28.4: Observed Annual Precipitation 41.3b: Observed Number or Warm Nights 22.2: Projected Changes in Very Hot Days, Cool Days, and Heavy Precipitation 16.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 41.7: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 33.2a: Observed Summer Temperature 21.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 44.4b: Observed Annual Precipitation 7.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 16.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 42.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 41.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 40.2a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 2.27: Ice Cover in the Great Lakes 2.9: Projected Temperature Change by 2071-2099 (CMIP5 models) 44.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 19.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 18.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 23.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 36.2: Observed Summer Temperature 2.5: Projected Change in Average Annual Temperature 44.5: Utah Palmer Drought Severity Index 40.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 22.2a: Observed Number of Hot Days 15.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 35.2b: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 4.2b: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 19.2a-2: Observed Summer Temperature 2.17: Observed Change in Very Heavy Precipitation 33.2b: Observed Winter Temperature 48.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 3.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 1.2b: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 20.4: Projected Precipitation Change for Puerto Rico A5.14: Temperature Change Varies by Region 24.2b: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 29.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change Monitoring and Understanding Changes in Extremes: Extratropical Storms, Winds, and Waves 36.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 12.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change Monitoring and Understanding Changes in Heat Waves, Cold Waves, Floods, and Droughts in the United States: State of Knowledge 24.2a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 28.9: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 7.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 6.5: Projected Changes in Key Climate Variables Affecting Agricultural Productivity 18.2e: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 3.7: Lake Mead Water Level at Hoover Dam 14.4: Observed Annual Precipitation fe1ad9b9-3516-4623-aa66-4956ceec6891 7.2b: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 39.3a: Observed Number of Warm Nights a7c5f0aa-db53-4965-bd56-88e8f7a87a89 34.23: Emissions Levels Determine Temperature Rises 17.2b-2: Observed Summer Temperature A framework for examining climate-driven changes to the seasonality and geographical range of coastal pathogens and harmful algae 49.6: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 25.1: Temperature Has Increased Across the Southwest 7.7: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 31.7: New Mexico Palmer Drought Severity Index 3.5: Observed Monsoon Season Precipitation 34.6: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 34.8: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation nca3 chapter 34 : Appendix 4: Frequently Asked Questions 45.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 17.2b-1: Observed Winter Temperature 48.6: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 43.8: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 22.5: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 18.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 3.6: Arizona Palmer Drought Severity Index 18.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 29.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 15.2d: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 19.5: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 37.4d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 50.2: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 46.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 18.5: Total Hurricane Events in Louisiana 49.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 2.7: Observed U.S. Temperature Change 10.4: Changes in Length of Growing Season 12961b12-f04c-41f6-9603-cdc65291eb89 10.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 32.6: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 30.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 21.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 31.7: New Mexico Palmer Drought Severity Index 36.3d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 7.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 46.6: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation A5.11: Comparison of Climate Models and Observed Temperature Change 31.5: Storage Levels in Elephant Butte Reservoir 21.2b: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events U.S. temperature and drought: Recent anomalies and trends 33.4: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016 Appendix 1: Technical Support Document 22cf98ca-20af-4fc0-ba4d-ef7234aa5be5 7.8: Change in the Number of Days Within Precipitation Percentile Intervals 7.7: Projected Change in Daily, 20-year Extreme Precipitation -.6: Extreme Precipitation Has Increased Across Much of the United States 26.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 14.2a-2: Observed Summer Temperature 26fc56f4-b4e0-425b-adc8-14c6d961d558 34.5: Observed Annual Precipitation 44.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 6.8: Colorado Palmer Drought Severity Index 5.9: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 12.6: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 27.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 33.3d: Total Hurricane Events in North Carolina 35.2e: Observed Summer Precipitation 32.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 25.3c: Observed Annual Precipitation Can CGCMs Simulate the Twentieth-Century “Warming Hole” in the Central United States? 15.4: Observed Annual Precipitation 15.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 5. Climate of the Midwest U.S. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-5 10.3: Texas Summer 2011: Record Heat and Drought 44.5: Utah Palmer Drought Severity Index 4f071049-4952-4e2b-ac40-9942a7752382 A5.18: Short-Term Variability Versus Long-Term Trend 1.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 2. Climate of the Southeast U.S. NOAA Technical Report 142-2 3.2b-1: Observed Maximum Summer Temperature 33.4: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 13.6: Annual Lake-Wide Average Water Levels for Lake Michigan-Huron 16.2b: Observed Summer Temperature 18.2c: Observed Spring Precipitation 1.8: 1700 Years of Global Temperature Change from Proxy Data 41.3a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 1a061197-95cf-47bd-9db4-f661c711a174 19.2b: Observed Number of Hot Days 4.4: Observed Summer Temperature 50.4d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 10.5: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 33.22: Projected Summertime Precipitation Changes 39.3b: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 40.4: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 48.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 15.3a: Observed Spring Precipitation 32.2b: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 16.3a: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights A5.20: Extreme Temperature and Precipitation Events 2.6: Projected Change in Average Annual Precipitation 35.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 19.6: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 49.2a-1: Observed Winter Temperature 32.2a-2: Observed Summer Temperature 7447d9e8-b0d8-4009-af97-fce115235283 Regional Surface Climate Conditions in CMIP3 and CMIP5 for the United States: Differences, Similarities, and Implications for the U.S. National Climate Assessment 8.6: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 3.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 1.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation
Howard Kunreuther National Bureau of Economic Research University of Pennsylvania Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania Wharton Risk Management and Decision Processes Center Wharton School of Business Department of Operations and Information Management Making America more resilient toward natural disasters: A call for action At War with the Weather: Manag... At War with the Weather: Manag... A Methodological Approach for Pricing Flood Insurance and Evaluating Loss Reduction Measures: Application to Texas, Wharton Risk Management Center and CoreLogic, Philadelphia, PA and Santa Ana, CA Climate Change, Insurability of Large-Scale Disasters and the Emerging Liability Challenge. NBER Working Paper 12821 Catastrophe Modeling: A New Ap... Risk management and climate change nca3 chapter 26 : Decision Support: Connecting Science, Risk Perception, and Decisions Redesigning Flood Insurance Risk, Media and Stigma: Unders... Decision Processes for Low Probability Events: Policy Implications Risk Analysis and Risk Management in an Uncertain World
Georges Kunstler 0000-0002-2544-1940 Institute for Environmental Science and Technology Research CEMAGREF Macquarie University Department of Biological Sciences National Research Institute of Science and Technology for Environment and Agriculture Mountain Ecosystems Research Unit IRSTEA UR EMGR Disparity in elevational shifts of European trees in response to recent climate warming Climate-driven change in plant–insect interactions along elevation gradients
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Michael Kunz 0000-0002-0202-9558 Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology CEDEM Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research Investigation of superstorm Sandy 2012 in a multi-disciplinary approach
Nino Künzli 0000-0001-8360-080X Autonomous University of Barcelona Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies ICREA Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute IMIM University of Southern California Department of Preventive Medicine Health effects of the 2003 southern California wildfires on children The effect of air pollution on lung development from 10 to 18 years of age
Tina Kunz-Plapp Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology CEDEM Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Geophysical Institute GPI Investigation of superstorm Sandy 2012 in a multi-disciplinary approach
Chao-yang Kuo 0000-0002-5261-5045 Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies Global warming and recurrent mass bleaching of corals
Kevin C. Kuo University of Michigan Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences University of Michigan School of Public Policy Record-setting algal bloom in Lake Erie caused by agricultural and meteorological trends consistent with expected future conditions
Hans Kupfersberger 0000-0001-6952-7992 Joanneum Research Climate change impacts on groundwater and dependent ecosystems
Kaarle Kupiainen International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis IIASA Simultaneously Mitigating Near-Term Climate Change and Improving Human Health and Food Security
Dane M. Kuppinger 0000-0003-3818-9948 Oberlin College and Conservatory Adam Joseph Lewis Center for Environmental Studies The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Department of Biology Predicting the post-fire establishment and persistence of an invasive tree species across a complex landscape
Evan R. Kuras University of Massachusetts Amherst Department of Environmental Conservation Hot playgrounds and children's health: A multiscale analysis of surface temperatures in Arizona, USA
Natalie Kurashima 0000-0002-5241-8025 Kamehameha Schools University of Hawai'i at Manoa Department of Botany Bringing multiple values to the table: Assessing future land-use and climate change in North Kona, Hawai’i
Lado Kurdgelashvili University of Delaware Center for Energy and Environmental Policy CEEP Estimating technical potential for rooftop photovoltaics in California, Arizona and New Jersey
Jaise Kuriakose 0000-0002-8536-8984 The Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research University of Manchester Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering What if negative emission technologies fail at scale? Implications of the Paris Agreement for big emitting nations
E. K. Kurien Kerala Agricultural University Academy of Climate Change Education and Research Heat stress and dairy cow: Impact on both milk yield and composition
Pablo Kuri Morales Pablo Kuri Morales Epidemic dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever at the Texas–Mexico border: Results of a household-based seroepidemiologic survey, December 2005
Yoshiaki Kuriyama Port and Airport Research Institute Coastal vulnerability across the Pacific dominated by El Niño/Southern Oscillation
Thomas A. Kurkowski Scenarios Network for Alaska and Arctic Planning University of Alaska Fairbanks International Arctic Research Center Downscaling of climate model output for Alaskan stakeholders Consequences of changes in vegetation and snow cover for climate feedbacks in Alaska and northwest Canada
Sofyan Kurnianto Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) Mangroves among the most carbon-rich forests in the tropics
Klaus Kurtenbach Active and Passive Surveillance and Phylogenetic Analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi Elucidate the Process of Lyme Disease Risk Emergence in Canada
Nathan Kurtz Morgan State University CryoSat-2 estimates of Arctic sea ice thickness and volume
Daniel Kurtzman The University of Texas at Austin Bureau of Economic Geology The University of Texas at Austin Jackson School of Geosciences El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Pacific Decadal Oscillation impacts on precipitation in the southern and central United States: Evaluation of spatial distribution and predictions
Michael J. Kurylo National Aeronautics and Space Administration SAP 2.4. Trends in Emissions of Ozone-Depleting Substances, Ozone Layer Recovery, and Implications for Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure
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Raymond Kurz Southwest Florida Water Management District Surface Water Improvement Program The effects of seasonal variability and weather on microbial fecal pollution and enteric pathogens in a subtropical estuary
Werner Kurz 0000-0003-4576-7849 Canadian Forest Service Canadian Forestry Service Pacific Forestry Centre Natural Resources Canada Mountain pine beetle and forest carbon feedback to climate change Interannual and spatial impacts of phenological transitions, growing season length, and spring and autumn temperatures on carbon sequestration: A North America flux data synthesis Risk of natural disturbances makes future contribution of Canada's forests to the global carbon cycle highly uncertain Reconciling estimates of the contemporary North American carbon balance among terrestrial biosphere models, atmospheric inversions, and a new approach for estimating net ecosystem exchange from inventory-based data 9.5: Effects of Natural Disturbances on Carbon Dynamics in Canada’s Managed Forests Relationships between individual-tree mortality and water-balance variables indicate positive trends in water stress-induced tree mortality across North America A Large and Persistent Carbon Sink in the World's Forests Assessment of boreal forest historical C dynamics in the Yukon River Basin: relative roles of warming and fire regime change second-state-carbon-cycle-report-soccr2-sustained-assessment-report chapter 2 : The North American Carbon Budget Quantifying the biophysical climate change mitigation potential of Canada's forest sector second-state-carbon-cycle-report-soccr2-sustained-assessment-report chapter 9 : Forests Forest Carbon Sinks in the Northern Hemisphere
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Paul Kushner 0000-0002-6404-4518 University of Toronto Department of Physics The Community Earth System Model (CESM) large ensemble project: A community resource for studying climate change in the presence of internal climate variability
Yochanan Kushnir 0000-0003-3312-5160 Columbia University Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory Would advance knowledge of 1930s SSTs have allowed prediction of the Dust Bowl drought? Forced and Internal Twentieth-Century SST Trends in the North Atlantic Variation of the North Atlantic subtropical high western ridge and its implication to Southeastern US summer precipitation Model projections of an imminent transition to a more arid climate in southwestern North America Influence of local and remote SST on North Atlantic tropical cyclone potential intensity Climate change in the Fertile Crescent and implications of the recent Syrian drought Have Aerosols Caused the Observed Atlantic Multidecadal Variability?