People


Name ORCID Organizations Publications
Peter Kuhry Stockholm University Bolin Centre for Climate Research Stockholm University Department of Physical Geography Estimated stocks of circumpolar permafrost carbon with quantified uncertainty ranges and identified data gaps Climate change and the permafrost carbon feedback Soil organic carbon pools in the northern circumpolar permafrost region A simplified, data-constrained approach to estimate the permafrost carbon–climate feedback
Jan J. Kuiper 0000-0002-6655-9355 Netherlands Institute of Ecology Department of Aquatic Ecology How models can support ecosystem-based management of coral reefs
Greg Kujawa U.S. Forest Service Forest Management Service
Elizabeth B. Kujawinski 0000-0001-8261-971X Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry Molecular characterization of dissolved organic matter associated with the Greenland ice sheet
Meetpal S. Kukal 0000-0001-6589-3426 University of Nebraska-Lincoln Climate-driven crop yield and yield variability and climate change impacts on the U.S. Great Plains agricultural production
Maaret Kukkonen University of Cologne Institute of Geology and Mineralogy 2.8 Million Years of Arctic Climate Change from Lake El'gygytgyn, NE Russia
Kalev Kuklane 0000-0003-3169-436X Lund University Faculty of Engineering LTH Thermal Environment Laboratory Effects of heat stress on working populations when facing climate change
Kelly R. Kukowski Texas State University Department of Biology Hydraulic responses to extreme drought conditions in three co-dominant tree species in shallow soil over bedrock
Dominik Kulakowski 0000-0002-7576-3569 Clark University Graduate School of Geography Large carbon release legacy from bark beetle outbreaks across Western United States
Abraham Kulangara Association of State and Territorial Health Officials 3rd National Climate Assessment Feedback Report. Reference Number 2011-0059
Ranjani Wasantha Kulawardhana 0000-0001-7918-7514 Texas A&M University Department of Ecosystem Science and Management Historical reconstruction of mangrove expansion in the Gulf of Mexico: Linking climate change with carbon sequestration in coastal wetlands
Kathy Kuletz U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Fluxes, Fins, and Feathers: Relationships Among the Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort Seas in a Time of Climate Change
Robert J. Kuligowski NOAA Satellite, Data, and Information Service Center for Satellite Applications and Research Satellite sub-pixel rainfall variability
Manisha A. Kulkarni 0000-0002-5084-4960 University of Ottawa School of Epidemiology and Public Health Anticipating the international spread of Zika virus from Brazil
Christian A. Kull 0000-0002-7516-7898 Monash University School of Geography and Environmental Science Fire in the Earth System
Jaakko Kullberg Poleward shifts in geographical ranges of butterfly species associated with regional warming
Markku Kulmala 0000-0003-3464-7825 University of Helsinki Department of Physics Global observations of aerosol–cloud–precipitation–climate interactions
Andrew Kulmatiski 0000-0001-9977-5508 Utah State University Department of Plants, Soils and Climate Woody plant encroachment facilitated by increased precipitation intensity
Scott Kulp 0000-0003-1435-7943 Climate Central Rapid escalation of coastal flood exposure in US municipalities from sea level rise Evolving understanding of Antarctic ice‐sheet physics and ambiguity in probabilistic sea‐level projections Carbon choices determine US cities committed to futures below sea level Consequences of twenty-first-century policy for multi-millennial climate and sea-level change
Arun Kumar National Weather Service Climate Prediction Center National Weather Service Environmental Modeling Center National Weather Service National Centers for Environmental Prediction Hurricanes and Climate: The U.S. CLIVAR Working Group on Hurricanes Why Did Large Differences Arise in the Sea Surface Temperature Datasets across the Tropical Pacific during 2012? Anatomy of an Extreme Event The making of an extreme event: Putting the pieces together Atmospheric Response Patterns Associated with Tropical Forcing A retrospective assessment of National Centers for Environmental Prediction climate model–based ensemble hydrologic forecasting in the western United States Annual Cycle of Pacific–North American Seasonal Predictability Associated with Different Phases of ENSO Causes of the 2011–14 California drought Causes and predictability of the 2012 Great Plains drought Robustness of the nonlinear climate response to ENSO’s extreme phases
Devashish Kumar 0000-0003-1495-5089 Northeastern University Sustainability and Data Sciences Laboratory Regional and seasonal intercomparison of CMIP3 and CMIP5 climate model ensembles for temperature and precipitation
Emani Kumar ICLEI Local Governments for Sustainability Meta-principles for developing smart, sustainable, and healthy cities
Naresh Kumar Electric Power Research Institute Climatic effects of 1950–2050 changes in US anthropogenic aerosols – Part 2: Climate response Climatic effects of 1950-2050 changes in US anthropogenic aerosols - Part 1: Aerosol trends and radiative forcing
Roselyn Kumar 0000-0002-3940-0488 University of the South Pacific Pacific Studies Culturally grounded responses to coastal change on islands in the Federated States of Micronesia, northwest Pacific Ocean
Sanjiv Kumar Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies Intermodel variability and mechanism attribution of central and southeastern U.S. anomalous cooling in the twentieth century as simulated by CMIP5 models North American climate in CMIP5 experiments: Part III: Assessment of twenty-first-century projections North American Climate in CMIP5 Experiments. Part II: Evaluation of Historical Simulations of Intraseasonal to Decadal Variability
Christian D. Kummerow Colorado State University Department of Atmospheric Science The Global Precipitation Measurement Mission
Michaël Kummert 0000-0003-1606-8344 Polytechnique Montreal Department of Mechanical Engineering Designing net-zero energy buildings for the future climate, not for the past
Lee Kump The Pennsylvania State University Department of Geosciences The Geological Record of Ocean Acidification
Zbigniew W. Kundzewicz Polish Academy of Sciences Research Centre for Agricultural and Forest Environment Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research Coping with variability and change: Floods and droughts Climate change impacts on the hydrological cycle CLIMATE CHANGE: Stationarity Is Dead: Whither Water Management?
Kenneth E. Kunkel 0000-0001-6667-7047 Cooperative Institute for Climate and Satellites Cooperative Institute for Climate and Satellites - NC Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies Desert Research Institute Division of Atmospheric Sciences Illinois State Water Survey Midwestern Climate Center Midwestern Regional Climate Center National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Centers for Environmental Information NCEI National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Climatic Data Center North Carolina State University University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Department of Atmospheric Sciences 15.4: Observed Annual Precipitation 37.4b: Observed Number of Warm Nights 1.8: 1700 Years of Global Temperature Change from Proxy Data 18.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events nca4 chapter A3 : Appendix 3: Data Tools and Scenario Products 9.6: Projected Change in Summer Precipitation 17.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights nca3 chapter 33 : Appendix 3: Climate Science Supplement 8.6: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level Monitoring and Understanding Trends in Extreme Storms: State of Knowledge 44.7: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 12.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 8.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 6.6: End of Season Snow Water Equivalent Depth at Tower 44.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights Observational- and model-based trends and projections of extreme precipitation over the contiguous United States 43e4c69f-2e48-4edc-ad0b-c0508a35f6d7 19.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 26.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 28.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 44.6: Water Levels in the Great Salt Lake at Saltair Boat Harbor Monitoring and Understanding Changes in Extremes: Extratropical Storms, Winds, and Waves 18.7: Projected Change in Summer Precipitation Temporal variations in frost-free season in the United States: 1895–2000 19.6: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 34.6: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 3.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 13.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 34.23: Emissions Levels Determine Temperature Rises 44.2: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 12.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 14.2d-2: Observed Summer Precipitaton 1.5: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 20.7: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 35.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 49.2c: Observed Number of Warm Nights 34.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Days 6dafc8d5-9e40-4dd6-a63d-d456ec61a551 Climate Science Special Report: The Fourth National Climate Assessment: Volume I 32.2a-2: Observed Summer Temperature 22.2d: Observed Annual Precipitation 46.2b: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 49.5: Observed Annual Precipitation 26.4b: Observed Summer Temperature 28.4: Observed Annual Precipitation 38.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 14.6: Annual Lake-Wide Average Water Levels for Lake Michigan-Huron 35.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 25.4: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 34.19: Observed and Projected U.S. Temperature Change 18.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 35.2d-1: Observed Winter Precipitation 18.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 1.4: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 35.2b: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 38.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 4.6: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 48.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 22.2: Projected Changes in Very Hot Days, Cool Days, and Heavy Precipitation 16.6: Kansas Palmer Drought Severity Index 26.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Days 5.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 29.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 3.2a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 21.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 4.3: Increasing Numbers of Cooling Degree Days -.3: Sensitivity Analysis of Differences in Modeling Approaches 35.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016 chapter 1 : Climate Change and Human Health 16.3a: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 38.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 1.3: Projected Changes in Temperature and Precipitation by Mid-Century 7.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton Regional Surface Climate Conditions in CMIP3 and CMIP5 for the United States: Differences, Similarities, and Implications for the U.S. National Climate Assessment Monitoring and Understanding Changes in Heat Waves, Cold Waves, Floods, and Droughts in the United States: State of Knowledge 36.3d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 3.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 32.2b: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 44.4d: April 1 Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) at Ben Lomond Peak, UT 29.6: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level Changes in weather and climate extremes: State of knowledge relevant to air and water quality in the United States 20.4: Projected Precipitation Change for Puerto Rico 44.2: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 7.4: Observed Change in Heavy Precipitation Probable maximum precipitation and climate change 14.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 18.2c-1: Observed Spring Precipitation 6.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 31.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 4f071049-4952-4e2b-ac40-9942a7752382 A framework for examining climate-driven changes to the seasonality and geographical range of coastal pathogens and harmful algae 36.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 31.4c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation 23.2b: Observed Number of Warm Nights 24.2a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 25.3c: Observed Annual Precipitation 5.2a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 29.2a: Observed Number of Hot Days 1.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 42.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 31.4b: Observed Annual Precipitation 16.3c: Observed Annual Precipitation 35.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 5.7: California Palmer Drought Severity Index 50.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 44.5: Utah Palmer Drought Severity Index 11.8: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 40.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 18.2b: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 21.10: Historical and Projected Annual Number of Days Above 100°F for Chicago 18.5: Total Hurricane Events in Louisiana 33.3b: Observed Annual Precipitation 7.2a: Observed Number of Hot Days 39.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights -.1: Scenarios of Future Temperature Rise 33.22: Projected Summertime Precipitation Changes 25.3a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 24.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights The seasonal nature of extreme hydrological events in the northeastern United States 11.9: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 47.5: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 4.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 25.9: Projected Shift in Agricultural Zones 24.7: Projected Change in Summer Precipitation 37.5: End of Season Snow Water Equivalent Depth at Mt. Hood 21.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 36.3b: Observed Number of Extremely Warm Nights 14.2b: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 25.2c: Observed Minimum Summer Temperature 17.2a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 3.8: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 26.4a: Observed Winter Temperature 36.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 34.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 45.4: Observed Annual Precipitation 35.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days A5.10: Observed and Projected Changes in Global Temperature 2.10: Observed Increase in Frost-Free Season Length 35.4: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 37.2: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 12.8: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 42.4: Observed Annual Precipitation Meteorological Causes of the Secular Variations in Observed Extreme Precipitation Events for the Conterminous United States 16.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights Effects of ocean warming on growth and distribution of dinoflagellates associated with ciguatera fish poisoning in the Caribbean 21.3: Drying Effect of Warmer Air on Plants and Soils 16.3d-2: Observed Summer Precipitaton 18.6: When it Rains, it Pours 23.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 30.7: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 7.6: Future Projection of Regional Extreme Precipitation of 2-Day Duration and 5 Year Return 49.2a-1: Observed Winter Temperature 43.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 50.4c: Observed Annual Precipitation 33.2b: Observed Winter Temperature Can CGCMs Simulate the Twentieth-Century “Warming Hole” in the Central United States? 16.7: Projected Change in Summer Precipitation 31.4c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 49.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 17.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation cfafefc7-f04f-4cb3-8e7e-2978c92e2ae4 1.16: Projected Change in Very Hot Days by 2100 in Phoenix, Arizona 13.3a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 50.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 6.2b: Observed Summer Temperature 31.2: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 32.6: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 17.4: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 24.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 31.4b: Observed Annual Precipitation 46.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 33.4: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 1a061197-95cf-47bd-9db4-f661c711a174 2.5: Projected Change in Average Annual Temperature 44.4a: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 38.2a: Observed Number of Hot Days 49.2b: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 13.3d: Observed Annual Precipitation 9.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 33.2a: Observed Summer Temperature 21.5: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 40.5: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 44.7: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 33.20: Projected Annually-Averaged Temperature C hange 44.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights nca4 chapter 2 : Our Changing Climate 3.3: Observed Number of Extremely Warm Nights 22.3: Hydrologic Changes Across the Northern Great Plains 49.8: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 18.2b: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 37.4a: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 27.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 50.4a-1: Observed Winter Temperature 45.2b: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 24.2b: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 4. Climate of the U.S. Great Plains. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-4 33.3c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 39.3b: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 20.2b: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 10.2c: Observed Summer Precipitation 7.7: Projected Change in Daily, 20-year Extreme Precipitation 26fc56f4-b4e0-425b-adc8-14c6d961d558 29.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 29.5: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 35.2d-2: Observed Summer Precipitation CMIP5 Climate Model Analyses: Climate Extremes in the United States 10.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 4.4: Projected Changes in Seasonal Precipitation 10.3: Observed and Projected Changes in Frost-Free Season 15.3b: Observed Summer Precipitaton 2.5: Observed and Projected Change in Seasonal Precipitation Trends and extremes in Northern Hemisphere snow characteristics 8.2b: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 17.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 45.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 1.3: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 1.2b: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 20.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 31.4d: Observed Monsoon Season Precipitation 4.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 43.8: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 36.3a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 4.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 2.15: Newer Simulations for Projected Precipitation Change (CMIP5 models) 31.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 6.5d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 31.2: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 12961b12-f04c-41f6-9603-cdc65291eb89 20.3: Observed and Projected Temperature Change for Puerto Rico 19.22: Projected Changes in Cooling Degree Days 24.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 22.2b: Observed Number of Warm Nights 19.5: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 49.7: Annual Lake-Wide Average Water Levels for Lake Michigan-Huron 15.2b: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 27.6: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 2. Climate of the Southeast U.S. NOAA Technical Report 142-2 -.6: Extreme Precipitation Has Increased Across Much of the United States 18.4: Observed Annual Precipitation c8484765-3d50-48dc-a2e3-09cb56610265 39.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016 Appendix 1: Technical Support Document c6e6a4b8-840f-4d4c-9487-9699fb94dd31 9.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 27.3a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 22.5: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 46.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 83ef5674-8aa8-40fe-8c7e-4f0ac3d140d8 1.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 15.2c: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 14.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 22.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 16.3d-1: Observed Spring Precipitation 31.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 35.2d: Observed Winter Precipitation 8.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 36.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 1.4: Projected Global Temperatures 23.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation Global land surface extremes of precipitation: Data limitations and trends 36.2: Observed Summer Temperature 15.3a: Observed Spring Precipitation 39.7: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 6.8: Colorado Palmer Drought Severity Index 16.3b: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 8.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 51.8: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 13.2a: Observed Spring Temperature 37.4d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events -.4: Significantly More Warming Occurs Under Higher Greenhouse Gas Concentration Scenarios 2d6fb90b-7d3d-4fce-8f63-36459f80d366 44.6: Annual Average Water Levels in the Great Salt Lake at Saltair Boat Harbor 27.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 7.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 43.4b: Observed Annual Precipitation 41.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 30.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 24.8: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 41.6: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 22.2c: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 45.2a: Observed Number of Hot Days 18.4: Observed Annual Precipitation 14.4: Observed Annual Precipitation 23.2a: Observed Number of Hot Days 1.9: Proxy Temperature Reconstructions 45.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 46.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 21.7: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 24.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation The response of Great Lakes water levels to future climate scenarios with an emphasis on Lake Michigan-Huron 43.2: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 44.4b: Observed Annual Precipitation 7.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 15.2d: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 28.5: Nevada Palmer Drought Severity Index 45.5: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 43.9: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 46.7: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 24.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 5. Climate of the Midwest U.S. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-5 33.2a: Observed Winter Temperature 25.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 42.6: Observed Summer Precipitaton 23.1: Monitoring Precipitation Across the Southern Great Plains 7.5: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 2.17: Observed Change in Very Heavy Precipitation 25.3d: Observed Summer Precipitaton Trends in Twentieth-Century U.S. Extreme Snowfall Seasons 1.2d: Total Hurricane Events in Alabama, 1900-2013 17.4: Projected Change in Number of Days Over 95°F 1.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 41.3d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 27.2a: Observed Winter Temperature 2.2: Global Temperature and Carbon Dioxide 19.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 3. Climate of the Midwest U.S. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-3 6.7: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 15.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 34.8: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 24.7: Projected Change in Summer Precipitation 46.4: Observed Summer Temperature 6.5c-1: Observed Fall Precipitation 41.7: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 27.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 4.4: Observed Summer Temperature 19.5: Projected Number of Warm Nights 46.6: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 40.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 5.2c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 39.3a: Observed Number of Warm Nights 1.2: Global Land and Ocean Temperature Anamolies 14.2d-1: Observed Spring Precipitaton 6.7: Projected Changes in Annual Average Temperatures 22.4: Annual Lake-Wide Average Water Levels for Lake Michigan-Huron 2.4: Emissions Levels Determine Temperature Rises 3.5: Observed Monsoon Season Precipitation fe1ad9b9-3516-4623-aa66-4956ceec6891 48.2: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 26.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 44.4b: Observed Annual Precipitation 39.3d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 2.27: Ice Cover in the Great Lakes 15.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 40.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 33.4: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 25.3b: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 41.3b: Observed Number or Warm Nights 4.2a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 32.2d: Observed Annual Precipitation 33.3d: Total Hurricane Events in North Carolina 30.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 35.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 11.2: Projected Change in the Number of Very Hot Days 21.2b: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 49.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Days 19.15: Projected Changes in Plant Hardiness Zones 42.7: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 37.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 28.6: Lake Mead Elevation at Hoover Dam 33.3a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 31.7: New Mexico Palmer Drought Severity Index 24.2d: Observed Summer Precipitation 50.5: End of Season Snow Water Equivalent Depth at Lewis Lake Divide 23.2c: Observed Number of Very Cold Days 22cf98ca-20af-4fc0-ba4d-ef7234aa5be5 21.2a: Observed Number of Hot Days 45.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 33.3c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events nca3 chapter 2 : Our Changing Climate 006264b2-8594-4e09-9430-a1d0cc056ff7 18.5: Total Hurricane Events in Louisiana 48.6: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 10.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 32.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 30.5: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 10.4: Changes in Length of Growing Season nca3 chapter 34 : Appendix 4: Frequently Asked Questions 37.6: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 1.4: Projected Changes in Hottest/Coldest and Wettest/Driest Day of the Year 17.2b-1: Observed Winter Temperature 44.4d: April 1 Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) at Ben Lomond Peak, UT 1.3: Projected Changes in U.S. Annual Average Temperatures 19.3: Historical Change in Heavy Precipitation 48.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 1.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change a405fab3-ee62-401c-8d93-347261d9eab9 33.2b: Observed Summer Temperature 17.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 24.4: Observed Summer Temperature 50.4a-2: Observed Summer Temperature 30.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days How spatially coherent and statistically robust are temporal changes in extreme precipitation in the contiguous USA? 3.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 33.3d: Total Hurricane Events in North Carolina 31.4a: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights A5.20: Extreme Temperature and Precipitation Events 5.2b: Observed Annual Precipitation 41.2b: Observed Summer Temperature 27.3d: Observed Summer Precipitaton Impacts, Risks, and Adaptation in the United States: The Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume II 30.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 47.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 43.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change A5.18: Short-Term Variability Versus Long-Term Trend 14.2a-1: Observed Spring Temperature 17.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 33.3b: Observed Annual Precipitation 1.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 8.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 38.6: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 14.3: Growing Season Lengthens 40.4: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 49.2d-2: Observed Summer Precipitaton nca4 chapter 19 : Southeast 11.3: Projected Change in Number of Days with Heavy Precipitation 41.2a: Observed Winter Temperature 6.2a: Observed Spring Temperature 33.5: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 50.4b: Observed Number of Very Cold Days 10.2a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 49.6: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 18.2e: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 18.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 3.6: Arizona Palmer Drought Severity Index 20.2d: Observed Annual Precipitation 46.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 20.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change nca4 chapter A5 : Appendix 5: Frequently Asked Questions 31.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation nca3 chapter 29 : Research Needs for Climate and Global Change Assessments 37.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights U.S. temperature and drought: Recent anomalies and trends 34.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change Trends in Twentieth-Century U.S. Snowfall Using a Quality-Controlled Dataset 7.8: Change in the Number of Days Within Precipitation Percentile Intervals 43.6: Texas Palmer Drought Severity Index 31.4a: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 9.2d: Total Hurricane Events in Florida, 1900-2013 28.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 7.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 9.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 2.4: Observed and Projected Changes in Annual Average Temperature nca4 chapter 21 : Midwest SAP 3.1. Climate Models: An Assessment of Strengths and Limitations A surface energy budget view of the 1988 midwestern United States drought 49.4: Ice Cover on Lake Mendota 18.8: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 18.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 14.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 18.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 46.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 12.2: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 10.5: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 43.4a: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 22.3: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 7447d9e8-b0d8-4009-af97-fce115235283 10.6: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 19.2: Projected Change in Number of Hot Days A5.11: Comparison of Climate Models and Observed Temperature Change 24.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 26.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 19.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 33.6: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 35.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 27.3c: Observed Annual Precipitation 22.2a: Observed Number of Hot Days 13.8: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 19.2b: Observed Number of Hot Days 6.5c-2: Observed Spring Precipitation 23.4: Projected Increase in Number of Days Above 100°F 26.5: End of Season Snow Water Equivalent Depth at Noisy Basin 21.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 16.2b: Observed Summer Temperature 28.2: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 33.21: Projected Wintertime Precipitation Changes 1.3: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 25.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 7.7: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 4.2b: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 18.2c: Observed Spring Precipitation 31.7: New Mexico Palmer Drought Severity Index 18.2d: Observed Fall Precipitation 45.2c-a: Observed Summer Temperature 834f7624-40de-4a09-9ced-faaca30d4d6d 4.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 6.3: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 27.3b: Observed Number or Warm Nights 6.5: Projected Changes in Key Climate Variables Affecting Agricultural Productivity 13.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 48.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 20.2c: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 7.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights A preliminary synthesis of modeled climate change impacts on U.S. regional ozone concentrations 1.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 16.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 44.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 6.5a: Observed Number of Warm Nights 37.7: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 12.5: Observed Annual Precipitation 35.5: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 30.2b: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 24.8: Observed and Projected Change in Global Sea Level 31.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 32.8: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 35.5: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 50.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 32.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 9.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 991826ea-5f98-45f2-827e-8fdfc48d07fb Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 1. Climate of the Northeast U.S. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-1 41.3c: Observed Annual Precipitation 35.4: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 30.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 21.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 42.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change fbad1b23-b576-4996-a75a-3fe2a1c8dde9 8.1: Projected Change in Soil Moisture, End of Century, Higher Emissions 44.4a: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 3.2b-2: Observed Minimum Summer Temperature 24.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 16.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events Detection and attribution of climate extremes in the observed record 25.2a: Observed Summer Temperature 7.3: 2-Day Precipitation Events Exceeding 5-Year Recurrence Interval Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 6. Climate of the Northwest U.S. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-6 2.7: Observed U.S. Temperature Change 25.2b: Observed Maximum Summer Temperature -.1: Global Temperatures Continue to Rise 39.3c: Observed Annual Precipitation 1.2d: Total Hurricane Events in Alabama 18.2: Projected Mid-Century Temperature Changes in the Midwest 48.5: Observed Annual Precipitation 31.5: Storage Levels in the Elephant Butte Reservoir 44.4c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 19.2: Historical Change in Freeze-Free Season Length 15.2a: Observed Summer Temperature 29.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 2.11: Projected Changes in Frost-Free Season Length 8.4: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 36.3c: Observed Annual Precipitation 39.5: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 40.2a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 3.7: Lake Mead Water Level at Hoover Dam 4.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 12.6: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 31.4d: Observed Monsoon Season Precipitation 47.7: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation beed84d6-d0f9-4c33-a8d3-808ed6eb6e3b 25.10: Projected Increases in Extreme Heat Synthesis of public water supply use in the United States: Spatio-temporal patterns and socio-economic controls 5.8: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 10.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 2.8: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 1.5: Observed and Projected Change in Global Sea Level 27.2b: Observed Summer Temperature 32.2a-1: Observed Winter Temperature 19.4: Historical Number of Warm Nights 20.5: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 13.3c: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 30.4: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 2.6: Observed and Projected Change in Heavy Precipitation 34.12: Measurements of Surface Temperature and Sun’s Energy 17.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 38.4: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 42.2: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days A5.14: Temperature Change Varies by Region Seasonal and regional variations in extreme precipitation event frequency using CMIP5 45.2c-b: Observed Winter Temperature 14.7: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation a7c5f0aa-db53-4965-bd56-88e8f7a87a89 19.1: Historical Changes in Hot Days and Warm Nights 25.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 3.2b-1: Observed Maximum Summer Temperature 26.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 8. Climate of the Pacific Islands. U.S. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-8 13.6: Annual Lake-Wide Average Water Levels for Lake Michigan-Huron 41.5: Annual Snowfall Totals at Menno 26.2b: Observed Number of Warm Nights 32.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 16.2a: Observed Spring Temperature 19.4: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 1.2b: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights Recent increases in U.S. heavy precipitation associated with tropical cyclones 1.4: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 19.4: Projected Change in Number of Heavy Precipitation Days 21.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 36.7: Projected Change in Summer Precipitation 10.3: Texas Summer 2011: Record Heat and Drought Temporal variations of extreme precipitation events in the United States: 1895–2000 19.5: Projected Change in Number of Consecutive Dry Days 1.2: Change in Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 19.2a-1: Observed Winter Temperature 13.3b: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 34.9: Decade-Scale Changes in Average Temperature for U.S. Regions 34.5: Observed Annual Precipitation 29.2b: Observed Number of Warm Nights 8.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation Reply to “Comments on ‘Monitoring and understanding trends in extreme storms: State of knowledge’” 18.7: Ice Cover in the Great Lakes 15.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 29.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation The Nature and Impacts of the July 1999 Heat Wave in the Midwestern United States: Learning from the Lessons of 1995 24.4: Observed Summer Temperature 13.4a: Observed Spring Precipitation 33.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 6.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 36.6: Oklahoma Palmer Drought Severity Index 25.1: Temperature Has Increased Across the Southwest 10.4: Observed Annual Precipitation A new look at lake-effect snowfall trends in the Laurentian Great Lakes using a temporally homogeneous data set 5.6: Storage Levels in the Shasta Dam Reservoir 2.6: Projected Change in Average Annual Precipitation 5.2d: Observed Winter Precipitation 31.5: Storage Levels in Elephant Butte Reservoir 14.2c: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 33.6: Observed and Projected Change in Global Sea Level Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 7. Climate of Alaska. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-7 43.4c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 50.4d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 2.9: Projected Temperature Change by 2071-2099 (CMIP5 models) 10.2b: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 41.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Days 2.13: Annual Maximum Precipitation and Changes in Consecutive Dry Days 47.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 13.4b: Observed Summer Precipitaton 35.2b: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 23.4: Observed Annual Precipitation 9.2b: Observed Number of Nights Below Freezing 5.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 18.7: Projected Change in Summer Precipitation 38.2b: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 24.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 18.8: Observed and Projected Change in Global Sea Level Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 9. Climate of the Contiguous United States. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-9 5bd64870-4e8e-45cb-9b2c-83c52f5af397 35.2e: Observed Summer Precipitation 2.8: Projected Temperature Change 49.2a-2: Observed Summer Temperature 17.5: Projected Change in Number of Nights Below 32°F 46.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 33.5: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 44.4c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 39.2: Observed Number of Hot Days 18.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 14.2a-2: Observed Summer Temperature 24.2b: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 32.2c: Observed Number of Warm Nights 13.2b: Observed Summer Temperature 50.2: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 37.4c: Observed Annual Precipitation 35.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 17.2b-2: Observed Summer Temperature 9.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 18.2c-2: Observed Fall Precipitation 41.3a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 20.4: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 40.2b: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 5.9: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 6.5b: Observed Annual Precipitation 3.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 7.2b: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 48.7: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 34.2: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 26.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 40.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 19.2a-2: Observed Summer Temperature 19.3: Projected Change in Number of Warm Nights 38.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation Indicator: Heavy Precipitation 2.14: Projected Precipitation Change by Season 12.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 29.4: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 49.2d-1: Observed Winter Precipitation 28.9: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 44.5: Utah Palmer Drought Severity Index 42.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 23.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events
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