Name ORCID Organizations Publications
Thomas McKone Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Indoor Environment Department University of California, Berkeley School of Public Health Indoor particulate matter of outdoor origin: Importance of size-dependent removal mechanisms Implications of global climate change for the assessment and management of human health risks of chemicals in the natural environment Public Health Impacts of Climate Change in California: Community Vulnerability Assessments and Adaptation Strategies. Report No. 1: Heat-Related Illness and Mortality
Jason S. McLachlan University of Notre Dame Department of Biological Sciences Novel and lost forests in the upper midwestern United States, from new estimates of settlement-era composition, stem density, and biomass Reassessing conservation goals in a changing climate Managed Relocation: Integrating the Scientific, Regulatory, and Ethical Challenges
Jean E McLain US Agricultural Nitrous Oxide Emissions: Context, Status, and Trends
Charles McLandress University of Toronto Department of Physics A robust mechanism for strengthening of the Brewer–Dobson circulation in response to climate change: Critical-layer control of subtropical wave breaking The climate impact of past changes in halocarbons and CO 2 in the tropical UTLS region
Kendra K. McLauchlan 0000-0002-6612-1097 Dartmouth College Environmental Studies Program Kansas State University Department of Geography The nature and longevity of agricultural impacts on soil carbon and nutrients: A review Centennial-scale reductions in nitrogen availability in temperate forests of the United States
Dennis McLaughlin Massachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Probabilistic analysis of the effects of climate change on groundwater recharge
F. A. McLaughlin Aragonite Undersaturation in the Arctic Ocean: Effects of Ocean Acidification and Sea Ice Melt
Joseph B. McLaughlin Alaska Department of Heath and Social Services Division of Public Health Alaska Division of Public Health Increasing insect reactions in Alaska: Is this related to changing climate? Outbreak of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Gastroenteritis Associated with Alaskan Oysters
Karen McLaughlin Southern California Coastal Water Research Project Impacts of coastal acidification on the Pacific Northwest shellfish industry and adaptation strategies implemented in response
Katie McLaughlin 0000-0002-1362-2410 Harvard Medical School Serious emotional disturbance among youths exposed to Hurricane Katrina 2 years postdisaster
Elizabeth L. Mclean University of Rhode Island Department of Marine Affairs Cost and materials required to retrofit US seaports in response to sea level rise: A thought exercise for climate response
Greg McLean Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries The critical role of extreme heat for maize production in the United States
Kirsty Galloway McLean BioChimera United Nations University United Nations University Institute for the Advanced Study of Sustainability Traditional Knowledge Initiative Advance Guard: Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation, Mitigation and Indigenous Peoples - A Compendium of Case Studies Report of the Indigenous Peoples’ Global Summit on Climate Change Weathering Uncertainty: Traditional Knowledge for Climate Change Assessment and Adaptation
Natalie Melissa McLean The University of the West Indies The Climate Studies Group Mona Characterization of future Caribbean rainfall and temperature extremes across rainfall zones
Sandra L. McLellan 0000-0003-3283-1151 Great Lakes WATER Institute University of Wisconsin-Madison Department of Population Health Sciences University of Wisconsin-Madison Nelson Institute Center for Sustainability and the Global Environment University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Distribution and Fate of Escherichia coli in Lake Michigan Following Contamination with Urban Stormwater and Combined Sewer Overflows Climate Change and Waterborne Disease Risk in the Great Lakes Region of the U.S. Association between rainfall and pediatric emergency department visits for acute gastrointestinal illness Detection of the human specific Bacteroides genetic marker provides evidence of widespread sewage contamination of stormwater in the urban environment usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016 chapter 6 : Climate Impacts on Water-Related Illnesses
William A. McLellan The University of North Carolina at Wilmington Department of Biology and Marine Biology Mortality of sea lions along the central California coast linked to a toxic diatom bloom
Robert McLeman Wilfrid Laurier University Routledge Handbook of Environm...
Elizabeth Mcleod The Nature Conservancy A blueprint for blue carbon: Toward an improved understanding of the role of vegetated coastal habitats in sequestering CO2 Managing Seagrasses for Resilience to Climate Change Clarifying the role of coastal and marine systems in climate mitigation Detecting regional anthropogenic trends in ocean acidification against natural variability
Jennie L. McLeod 0000-0002-2998-7449 McLeod Consulting Macroclimatic change expected to transform coastal wetland ecosystems this century
Robert S. McLeod BRE Institute of Sustainable Engineering A proposed method for generating high resolution current and future climate data for Passivhaus design
Alissa McMahon Alaska Pacific University Department of Environmental Science Changes in the alpine forest-tundra ecotone commensurate with recent warming in southcentral Alaska: Evidence from orthophotos and field plots
Connor McMahon 0000-0003-3037-2975 Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute Veterinary Sciences Division Potential impacts of climate change on veterinary medicinal residues in livestock produce: An island of Ireland perspective
James E. McMahon 0000-0003-0537-790X Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Department Better Climate Research and Policy Analysis Deep carbon reductions in California require electrification and integration across economic sectors second-state-carbon-cycle-report-soccr2-sustained-assessment-report chapter 3 : Energy Systems
James R. McMahon The Baldwin Group LMI Regional Surface Climate Conditions in CMIP3 and CMIP5 for the United States: Differences, Similarities, and Implications for the U.S. National Climate Assessment U.S. temperature and drought: Recent anomalies and trends Changes in weather and climate extremes: State of knowledge relevant to air and water quality in the United States Possible Artifacts of Data Biases in the Recent Global Surface Warming Hiatus
Peter B. McMahon 0000-0001-7452-2379 U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater depletion and sustainability of irrigation in the US High Plains and Central Valley Geochemistry, radiocarbon ages, and paleorecharge conditions along a transect in the central High Plains aquifer, southwestern Kansas, USA
Sean M. McMahon Smithsonian Environmental Research Center Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute Evidence for a recent increase in forest growth
Gary McManus Oklahoma Climatological Survey Oklahoma Mesonet nca4 chapter 23 : Southern Great Plains Benefits and beneficiaries of the Oklahoma Mesonet: A multisectoral ripple effect analysis
John W. McManus International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management ICLARM Environmental Limits to Coral Reef Development: Where Do We Draw the Line?
Margaret A. McManus National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Northeast Fisheries Science Center Narragansett Laboratory University of Hawai’i at Manoa Department of Oceanography Persistent spatial structuring of coastal ocean acidification in the California Current System A vulnerability assessment of fish and invertebrates to climate change on the northeast U.S. continental shelf Delayed upwelling alters nearshore coastal ocean ecosystems in the northern California current
Gavin R. McMeeking 0000-0001-9782-3713 Colorado State University Department of Atmospheric Science Smoke-impacted regional haze in California during the summer of 2002
Anthony J. McMichael National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health Food, livestock production, energy, climate change, and health Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: food and agriculture Non-heat related impacts of climate change on working populations Globalization, climate change, and human health Policies for accelerating access to clean energy, improving health, advancing development, and mitigating climate change Climate change threats to population health and well-being: The imperative of protective solutions that will last Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: overview and implications for policy makers International study of temperature, heat and urban mortality: the 'ISOTHURM' project
Erin McMichael University of Florida Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit Ecological regime shift drives declining growth rates of sea turtles throughout the West Atlantic
Calvin McMillan University of California, Berkeley Botanical Garden The distributional history and ecology of mangrove vegetation along the northern Gulf of Mexico coastal region
Malcolm McMillan University of Leeds School of Earth and Environment A Reconciled Estimate of Ice-Sheet Mass Balance
Heather McMillen 0000-0002-5835-8879 New York City Urban Field Station University of Hawai’i at Mānoa University of Hawai'i at Manoa Department of Botany Bringing multiple values to the table: Assessing future land-use and climate change in North Kona, Hawai’i The future is behind us: traditional ecological knowledge and resilience over time on Hawai‘i Island
Joel D. McMillin U.S. Forest Service Forest Health Protection Bark beetle-caused mortality in a drought-affected ponderosa pine landscape in Arizona, USA
Catherine P. McMullen United Nations Environment Programme UNEP Climate Change Science Compendium 2009
Ross E. McMurtrie 0000-0002-3140-1064 University of New South Wales School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences CO2 enhancement of forest productivity constrained by limited nitrogen availability
W. Henry McNab U.S. Forest Service Southern Research Station Ecosystem resilience despite large-scale altered hydroclimatic conditions Extreme precipitation patterns and reductions of terrestrial ecosystem production across biomes
M. McNair Environmental and Economic Costs of Soil Erosion and Conservation Benefits
Amy McNally NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Hydrological Science Branch Mapping physiological suitability limits for malaria in Africa under climate change
Richard J. McNally Harvard University Department of Psychology Exposure to Hurricane-Related Stressors and Mental Illness After Hurricane Katrina
Jim McNamara Boise State University Past and Future Changes in Arctic Lake and River Ice
Julie McNamara Union of Concerned Scientists Lights out? Storm surge, blackouts, and how clean energy can help
Karen E. McNamara 0000-0002-4511-8403 The University of Queensland School of Geography, Planning and Environmental Management University of the South Pacific Pacific Centre for Environment and Sustainable Development Taking stock of community-based climate-change adaptation projects in the Pacific: Climate change adaptation in the Pacific
Rebecca J. McNaught Red Cross Red Crescent Climate Centre Communicating climate change for adaptation in rural communities: A Pacific study Widespread inundation of Pacific islands triggered by distant-source wind-waves
Frederick M. McNeal U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Measuring and mitigating agricultural greenhouse gas production in the US Great Plains, 1870–2000
Douglas J. McNeall Met Office Hadley Centre The mechanisms of North Atlantic CO 2 uptake in a large Earth System Model ensemble
Sandra V. McNeel California Department of Public Health Environmental Health Investigations Branch Recreational exposure to microcystins during algal blooms in two California lakes
Shannon McNeeley Colorado State University Colorado State University Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory NREL National Center for Atmospheric Research Research Applications Laboratory North Central Climate Adaptation Science Center, NC CASC North Central Climate Science Center University of Alaska Fairbanks Department of Anthropology National Center for Atmospheric Research nca4 chapter 22 : Northern Great Plains nca3 chapter 28 : Adaptation Great Plains Regional Climate Assessment Technical Report: a Report Prepared for the National Climate Assessment nca4 chapter 15 : Tribes and Indigenous Peoples Great Plains Regional Technica... Sustainable climate change adaptation in Indian Country 22.7: Northern Great Plains Tribal Lands The cultural theory of risk for climate change adaptation Examining barriers and opportunities for sustainable adaptation to climate change in Interior Alaska Anatomy of an interrupted irrigation season: Micro-drought at the Wind River Indian Reservation Anatomy of a closing window: Vulnerability to changing seasonality in Interior Alaska Drought risk and adaptation in the interior United States: Understanding the importance of local context for resource management in times of drought A comprehensive review of climate adaptation in the United States: more than before, but less than needed
Camille McNeely University of California, Berkeley Department of Integrative Biology How Fine Sediment in Riverbeds Impairs Growth and Survival of Juvenile Salmonids
Jason McNees NatureServe Life history and spatial traits predict extinction risk due to climate change
Brenden E. McNeil 0000-0002-2665-8383 West Virginia University Department of Geology and Geography Centennial-scale reductions in nitrogen availability in temperate forests of the United States
Craig L. McNeil University of Washington Applied Physics Laboratory Storm-induced upwelling of high pCO2 waters onto the continental shelf of the western Arctic Ocean and implications for carbonate mineral saturation states
Sue McNeil 0000-0001-5983-8623 University of Delaware Methodology for integrating adaptation to climate change into the transportation planning process
J.R. McNeill Georgetown University The Age of Consequences: The Foreign Policy and National Security Implications of Global Climate Change
Richard T. McNider The University of Alabama in Huntsville Department of Atmospheric Science The University of Alabama in Huntsville Earth System Science Center Land cover changes and their biogeophysical effects on climate Response and sensitivity of the nocturnal boundary layer over land to added longwave radiative forcing
Elizabeth C. McNie 0000-0001-8980-4678 Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences CIRES Purdue University Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences Purdue University Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences Purdue University Department of Political Science University of Colorado Center for Science and Technology Policy Research University of Colorado Boulder Western Water Assessment Inaugural Article: Knowledge Systems for Sustainable Development Special Feature Sackler Colloquium: Boundary work for sustainable development: Natural resource management at the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) Delivering climate services: Organizational strategies and approaches for producing useful climate-science information Co-producing actionable science for water utilities Reconciling the supply of scientific information with user demands: an analysis of the problem and review of the literature
Steven G. McNulty U.S. Forest Service U.S. Forest Service Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center U.S. Forest Service Southern Global Climate Change Program U.S. Forest Service Southern Research Station Climate Change and Forest Disturbances Observations and assessment of forest carbon dynamics following disturbance in North America Managing for Multiple Resources Under Climate Change: National Forests Soil fertility limits carbon sequestration by forest ecosystems in a CO2-enriched atmosphere Impacts of impervious cover, water withdrawals, and climate change on river flows in the Conterminous US
Chad McNutt National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Earth System Research Laboratory National Integrated Drought Information System National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Drought Preparedness for Tribes in the Four Corners Region. Report from April 2010 Workshop. Tucson, AZ: Climate Assessment for the Southwest. National Climate Assessment Indicators: Background, Development, and Examples. A Technical Input to the 2013 National Climate Assessment Report. Defining ecological drought for the twenty-first century Water Resources Sector Technical Input Report in Support of the U.S. Global Change Research Program, National Climate Assessment - 2013
Debra McNutt Northwest Indian Applied Research Institute Native Peoples: The "Miners Canary" on Climate Change
Cynthia Agumanu McOliver U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Research and Development Community-based research as a mechanism to reduce environmental health disparities in American Indian and Alaska Native communities
Linette Boisvert McPartland 0000-0003-4778-4765 University of Maryland, College Park Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science University of Maryland, College Park Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center ESSIC Moisture flux changes and trends for the entire Arctic in 2003–2011 derived from EOS Aqua data Verification of air/surface humidity differences from AIRS and ERA-Interim in support of turbulent flux estimation in the Arctic Increasing evaporation amounts seen in the Arctic between 2003 and 2013 from AIRS data Changes in Arctic melt season and implications for sea ice loss
Michael J. McPhaden National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory Recent intensification of wind-driven circulation in the Pacific and the ongoing warming hiatus Using present-day observations to detect when anthropogenic change forces surface ocean carbonate chemistry outside preindustrial bounds Natural variability and anthropogenic change in equatorial Pacific surface ocean pCO2 and pH More extreme swings of the South Pacific convergence zone due to greenhouse warming Decadal variability of the Pacific subtropical cells and their influence on the southeast Indian Ocean Increasing intensity of El Niño in the central-equatorial Pacific Increasing frequency of extreme El Niño events due to greenhouse warming Increased frequency of extreme La Niña events under greenhouse warming Ecological impacts of the 2015/16 El Niño in the central equatorial Pacific [in "Explaining Extreme Events of 2016 From a Climate Perspective] A TOGA retrospective
Stephen Mcphail National Oceanography Centre Observations beneath Pine Island Glacier in West Antarctica and implications for its retreat
Timon McPhearson The New School Urban Systems Laboratory The food-energy-water nexus and urban complexity
Erika E. McPhee-Shaw Moss Landing Marine Laboratories Natural intrusions of hypoxic, low pH water into nearshore marine environments on the California coast
Bruce A. McPheron The Pennsylvania State University Department of Entomology Evolution of Insect Pests: Pat...
E. Gregory McPherson U.S. Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station Million trees Los Angeles canopy cover and benefit assessment
Renee A. McPherson 0000-0002-1497-9681 Oklahoma Climatological Survey The University of Oklahoma nca3 chapter 19 : Great Plains The Impact of Oklahoma's Winter Wheat Belt on the Mesoscale Environment Statewide monitoring of the mesoscale environment: A technical update on the Oklahoma Mesonet
Abigail McQuatters-Gollop 0000-0002-6043-9563 SAHFOS The Citadel Hill Marine Laboratory Sir Alister Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science Is there a decline in marine phytoplankton? Climate change and food safety: A review
Brad H. Mcrae The Nature Conservancy Achieving climate connectivity in a fragmented landscape Connectivity Planning to Address Climate Change
Douglas Brent McRoberts Texas A&M University Department of Atmospheric Sciences A New Homogenized Climate Division Precipitation Dataset for Analysis of Climate Variability and Climate Change
Edward McTiernan Arnold and Porter Kaye Scholer LLP New York State Department of Environmental Conservation New York's new sea level rise projections will affect land use, infrastructure
Jason L. McVay Northern Arizona University Remote Sensing and Geoinformatics Lab Informatics and Computing Program Climate, wildfire, and erosion ensemble foretells more sediment in western USA watersheds
Tim R. McVicar 0000-0002-0877-8285 Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Land and Water Global review and synthesis of trends in observed terrestrial near-surface wind speeds: Implications for evaporation
Michael J. McWilliam 0000-0001-5748-0859 Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies Global warming and recurrent mass bleaching of corals
Michael R. McWilliams University of Michigan Department of Economics Record-setting algal bloom in Lake Erie caused by agricultural and meteorological trends consistent with expected future conditions
Paul S. Mead Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Division of Vector-Borne Diseases Bacterial Diseases Branch National Center for Zoonotic Vector-Borne and Enteric Disease Division of Vector-borne Infectious Diseases Epidemiology of Lyme disease Climate Change Effects on Plague and Tularemia in the United States Surveillance for Lyme disease--United States, 1992-2006
Alison Meadow 0000-0003-0315-5799 The University of Arizona The University of Arizona Center for Climate Adaptation Science and Solutions The University of Arizona Institute of the Environment Engaging southwestern tribes in sustainable water resources topics and management Rain gauges to range conditions: Collaborative development of a drought information system to support local decision-making Lessons from first-generation climate science integrators Moving toward the deliberate coproduction of climate science knowledge
William C. Meagher III University of New Hampshire Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Method for evaluating implications of climate change for design and performance of flexible pavements
D. Bruce Means Coastal Plains Institute How global biodiversity hotspots may go unrecognized: Lessons from the North American Coastal Plain
Maxwell Means Louisiana State University Ourso College of Business 2012 Gulf Coast Climate Change Survey Executive Summary
Tiffany N. Means The Baldwin Group Annual floods in New England (USA) and Atlantic Canada: Synoptic climatology and generating mechanisms
Edward Means III ARCADIS Malcolm Pirnie Inc. Impacts of climate change on infrastructure planning and design: Past practices and future needs Decision Support Planning Methods: Incorporating Climate Change Uncertainties Into Water Planning. Water Utility Climate Alliance White Paper
Linda O. Mearns Massachusetts Institute of Technology National Center for Atmospheric Research National Center for Atmospheric Research Computational and Information Systems Laboratory National Institute of Mathematics Applied to Geosciences The importance of land-cover change in simulating future climates U.S. Agriculture and Climate Change: New Results SAP 2.1B: Global-Change Scenarios: Their Development and Use nca3 chapter 29 : Research Needs for Climate and Global Change Assessments The impact of extreme heat on morbidity in Milwaukee, Wisconsin The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program: Overview of Phase I Results Climate Science Special Report: The Fourth National Climate Assessment: Volume I Modeling streamflow and water quality sensitivity to climate change and urban development in 20 U.S. watersheds Future population exposure to US heat extremes nca4 chapter 2 : Our Changing Climate
Carl Mears 0000-0002-6020-9354 Remote Sensing Systems climate-science-special-report chapter 3 : Detection and Attribution of Climate Change Identification of human-induced changes in atmospheric moisture content A.1: tropospheric temperature climate-science-special-report chapter 1 : Our Globally Changing Climate Construction of the Remote Sensing Systems V3.2 atmospheric temperature records from the MSU and AMSU microwave sounders Comparing tropospheric warming in climate models and satellite data Identifying human influences on atmospheric temperature Tropospheric warming over the past two decades Separating signal and noise in atmospheric temperature changes: The importance of timescale Sensitivity of satellite-derived tropospheric temperature trends to the diurnal cycle adjustment Climate Science Special Report: The Fourth National Climate Assessment: Volume I 1.5: Hiatus Box
Thomas Measham 0000-0003-4549-5361 Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Ecosystem Sciences Adapting to climate change through local municipal planning: barriers and challenges
Reinhard Mechler International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis IIASA International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis Risk Policy and Vulnerability Program Revisiting the ‘disaster and development’ debate – Toward a broader understanding of macroeconomic risk and resilience The impact of air pollutant and methane emission controls on tropospheric ozone and radiative forcing: CTM calculations for the period 1990-2030 Adaptation in integrated assessment modeling: where do we stand?
Carlos R. Mechoso University of California, Los Angeles University of California, Los Angeles Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences Global meteorological drought: A synthesis of current understanding with a focus on SST drivers of precipitation deficits A global perspective on CMIP5 climate model biases
Jennifer V. Mecking University of Southampton Global and European climate impacts of a slowdown of the AMOC in a high resolution GCM
Sabine Mecking 0000-0002-2890-3223 University of Washington Applied Physics Laboratory Changes in Ocean Heat, Carbon Content, and Ventilation: A Review of the First Decade of GO-SHIP Global Repeat Hydrography Two decades of Pacific anthropogenic carbon storage and ocean acidification along Global Ocean Ship-based Hydrographic Investigations Program sections P16 and P02
Catherine W. Mecklenburg California Academy of Sciences Fishes of Alaska...
T Anthony Mecklenburg Fishes of Alaska...
Ellen Mecray National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Regional Climate Services Eastern Region Progress and challenges in incorporating climate change information into transportation research and design nca4 chapter 4 : Energy Supply, Delivery, and Demand nca4 chapter 18 : Northeast
Arjan J.H. Meddens University of Idaho College of Natural Resources Department of Natural Resources and Society University of Idaho Department of Geography University of Idaho Environmental Sciences Program Tree mortality from fires, bark beetles, and timber harvest during a hot and dry decade in the western United States (2003–2012) Indicators of climate change in Idaho: An assessment framework for coupling biophysical change and social perception Carbon stocks of trees killed by bark beetles and wildfire in the western United States Observations and assessment of forest carbon dynamics following disturbance in North America Observations and modeling of aboveground tree carbon stocks and fluxes following a bark beetle outbreak in the western United States
Stephen Medeiros University of Central Florida Department of Civil, Environmental and Construction Engineering Dynamics of sea level rise and coastal flooding on a changing landscape The dynamic effects of sea level rise on low-gradient coastal landscapes: A review Dynamic simulation and numerical analysis of hurricane storm surge under sea level rise with geomorphologic changes along the northern Gulf of Mexico
Danielle E. Medek 0000-0003-3781-2072 Harvard School of Public Health Department of Environmental Health Waitemata District Health Board Estimated effects of future atmospheric CO2 concentrations on protein intake and the risk of protein deficiency by country and region
Josué Medellín-Azuara 0000-0003-1379-2257 University of California, Davis Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Adapting California’s water system to warm vs. dry climates Economic impacts of climate-related changes to California agriculture
Luis Mediero 0000-0002-9346-6592 Technical University of Madrid Climate-driven variability in the occurrence of major floods across North America and Europe