People


Name ORCID Organizations Publications
Markku Kulmala 0000-0003-3464-7825 University of Helsinki Department of Physics Global observations of aerosol–cloud–precipitation–climate interactions
Andrew Kulmatiski 0000-0001-9977-5508 Utah State University Department of Plants, Soils and Climate Woody plant encroachment facilitated by increased precipitation intensity
Scott Kulp 0000-0003-1435-7943 Climate Central Evolving understanding of Antarctic ice‐sheet physics and ambiguity in probabilistic sea‐level projections Carbon choices determine US cities committed to futures below sea level Rapid escalation of coastal flood exposure in US municipalities from sea level rise Consequences of twenty-first-century policy for multi-millennial climate and sea-level change
Arun Kumar National Weather Service Climate Prediction Center National Weather Service Environmental Modeling Center National Weather Service National Centers for Environmental Prediction Robustness of the nonlinear climate response to ENSO’s extreme phases Hurricanes and Climate: The U.S. CLIVAR Working Group on Hurricanes Atmospheric Response Patterns Associated with Tropical Forcing The making of an extreme event: Putting the pieces together Annual Cycle of Pacific–North American Seasonal Predictability Associated with Different Phases of ENSO Anatomy of an Extreme Event Why Did Large Differences Arise in the Sea Surface Temperature Datasets across the Tropical Pacific during 2012? A retrospective assessment of National Centers for Environmental Prediction climate model–based ensemble hydrologic forecasting in the western United States Causes of the 2011–14 California drought Causes and predictability of the 2012 Great Plains drought
Devashish Kumar 0000-0003-1495-5089 Northeastern University Sustainability and Data Sciences Laboratory Regional and seasonal intercomparison of CMIP3 and CMIP5 climate model ensembles for temperature and precipitation
Naresh Kumar Electric Power Research Institute Climatic effects of 1950-2050 changes in US anthropogenic aerosols - Part 1: Aerosol trends and radiative forcing Climatic effects of 1950–2050 changes in US anthropogenic aerosols – Part 2: Climate response
Sanjiv Kumar Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies North American Climate in CMIP5 Experiments. Part II: Evaluation of Historical Simulations of Intraseasonal to Decadal Variability Intermodel variability and mechanism attribution of central and southeastern U.S. anomalous cooling in the twentieth century as simulated by CMIP5 models
Michaël Kummert 0000-0003-1606-8344 Polytechnique Montreal Department of Mechanical Engineering Designing net-zero energy buildings for the future climate, not for the past
Lee Kump The Pennsylvania State University Department of Geosciences The Geological Record of Ocean Acidification
Zbigniew W. Kundzewicz Polish Academy of Sciences Research Centre for Agricultural and Forest Environment Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research Coping with variability and change: Floods and droughts Climate change impacts on the hydrological cycle CLIMATE CHANGE: Stationarity Is Dead: Whither Water Management?
Kenneth E. Kunkel 0000-0001-6667-7047 North Carolina State University Cooperative Institute for Climate and Satellites - NC National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Climatic Data Center Illinois State Water Survey University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Desert Research Institute Division of Atmospheric Sciences Midwestern Regional Climate Center Midwestern Climate Center Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Centers for Environmental Information NCEI University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Department of Atmospheric Sciences 19.5: Projected Change in Number of Consecutive Dry Days 29.6: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 20.4: Projected Precipitation Change for Puerto Rico 50.4d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 12.6: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 8.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 32.2c: Observed Number of Warm Nights 35.4: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 38.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 20.3: Observed and Projected Temperature Change for Puerto Rico 7.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change c6e6a4b8-840f-4d4c-9487-9699fb94dd31 47.5: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 7.6: Future Projection of Regional Extreme Precipitation of 2-Day Duration and 5 Year Return 14.2a-2: Observed Summer Temperature 46.7: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 48.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 83ef5674-8aa8-40fe-8c7e-4f0ac3d140d8 1.2b: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 31.2: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 35.2e: Observed Summer Precipitation 24.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 46.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 18.2c-2: Observed Fall Precipitation 24.2b: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 18.7: Projected Change in Summer Precipitation 19.6: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 16.7: Projected Change in Summer Precipitation 33.3b: Observed Annual Precipitation 15.2c: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 19.5: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 1. Climate of the Northeast U.S. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-1 Trends in Twentieth-Century U.S. Extreme Snowfall Seasons 26.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 13.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 16.6: Kansas Palmer Drought Severity Index 43.4a: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 45.4: Observed Annual Precipitation 1.4: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 36.6: Oklahoma Palmer Drought Severity Index 24.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change fe1ad9b9-3516-4623-aa66-4956ceec6891 25.9: Projected Shift in Agricultural Zones c8484765-3d50-48dc-a2e3-09cb56610265 12961b12-f04c-41f6-9603-cdc65291eb89 15.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 34.23: Emissions Levels Determine Temperature Rises 40.4: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 18.4: Observed Annual Precipitation 35.2b: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 5.2b: Observed Annual Precipitation 19.5: Projected Number of Warm Nights 1.3: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 1.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 1.4: Projected Global Temperatures 35.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 37.2: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 43.6: Texas Palmer Drought Severity Index 31.7: New Mexico Palmer Drought Severity Index 24.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 1.8: 1700 Years of Global Temperature Change from Proxy Data 27.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 32.2d: Observed Annual Precipitation 50.4c: Observed Annual Precipitation 17.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 7.2a: Observed Number of Hot Days 6.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 37.6: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 3.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 20.5: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 21.10: Historical and Projected Annual Number of Days Above 100°F for Chicago 35.4: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 24.4: Observed Summer Temperature 33.20: Projected Annually-Averaged Temperature C hange 33.2a: Observed Winter Temperature 32.6: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level A5.10: Observed and Projected Changes in Global Temperature 24.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 26.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 38.6: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 36.3b: Observed Number of Extremely Warm Nights 27.3a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 38.2b: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 4.2a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 44.7: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 25.2a: Observed Summer Temperature 49.8: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 44.4d: April 1 Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) at Ben Lomond Peak, UT 18.5: Total Hurricane Events in Louisiana 1.9: Proxy Temperature Reconstructions 12.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 41.2a: Observed Winter Temperature 7.7: Projected Change in Daily, 20-year Extreme Precipitation 26.5: End of Season Snow Water Equivalent Depth at Noisy Basin 35.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 33.2b: Observed Summer Temperature 42.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 18.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 30.5: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 33.3a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 39.7: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 43.9: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level Changes in weather and climate extremes: State of knowledge relevant to air and water quality in the United States 7.7: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 1.2d: Total Hurricane Events in Alabama, 1900-2013 The Nature and Impacts of the July 1999 Heat Wave in the Midwestern United States: Learning from the Lessons of 1995 23.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 34.9: Decade-Scale Changes in Average Temperature for U.S. Regions 5.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 10.2a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 44.5: Utah Palmer Drought Severity Index 9.2b: Observed Number of Nights Below Freezing 14.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 37.7: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 49.2a-1: Observed Winter Temperature 7.2b: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 1.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 28.2: Observed Number of Very Hot Days A preliminary synthesis of modeled climate change impacts on U.S. regional ozone concentrations 2.11: Projected Changes in Frost-Free Season Length 25.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 32.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 5.2c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 14.2a-1: Observed Spring Temperature 24.4: Observed Summer Temperature 21.3: Drying Effect of Warmer Air on Plants and Soils 18.4: Observed Annual Precipitation 5.9: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 30.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 2.27: Ice Cover in the Great Lakes 15.4: Observed Annual Precipitation 22.3: Hydrologic Changes Across the Northern Great Plains 11.8: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 10.5: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 39.3b: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 42.2: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 14.2c: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 5. Climate of the Midwest U.S. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-5 30.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 37.4d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events nca4 chapter 21 : Midwest 42.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 21.2b: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 14.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 8.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 16.3d-1: Observed Spring Precipitation 26.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 4f071049-4952-4e2b-ac40-9942a7752382 39.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 26.4b: Observed Summer Temperature 49.5: Observed Annual Precipitation 3.5: Observed Monsoon Season Precipitation 31.4d: Observed Monsoon Season Precipitation 13.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 16.2b: Observed Summer Temperature 28.5: Nevada Palmer Drought Severity Index 31.4b: Observed Annual Precipitation A5.14: Temperature Change Varies by Region 11.9: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 20.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 33.3c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 18.8: Observed and Projected Change in Global Sea Level 50.4a-1: Observed Winter Temperature 12.2: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 36.3d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 7.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 16.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change A new look at lake-effect snowfall trends in the Laurentian Great Lakes using a temporally homogeneous data set 29.2b: Observed Number of Warm Nights -.1: Global Temperatures Continue to Rise 19.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 45.2b: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights Trends and extremes in Northern Hemisphere snow characteristics 41.5: Annual Snowfall Totals at Menno 35.5: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 10.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 31.4a: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights How spatially coherent and statistically robust are temporal changes in extreme precipitation in the contiguous USA? 24.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 44.4b: Observed Annual Precipitation 17.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 41.2b: Observed Summer Temperature 8.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 20.7: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 18.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 49.2a-2: Observed Summer Temperature 47.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 6.5b: Observed Annual Precipitation 8.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation -.1: Scenarios of Future Temperature Rise 25.3b: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights Temporal variations in frost-free season in the United States: 1895–2000 21.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 5.2a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 3.8: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 8.1: Projected Change in Soil Moisture, End of Century, Higher Emissions 13.3c: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 1.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days nca3 chapter 29 : Research Needs for Climate and Global Change Assessments 44.4a: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 32.8: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 31.5: Storage Levels in the Elephant Butte Reservoir 24.7: Projected Change in Summer Precipitation a405fab3-ee62-401c-8d93-347261d9eab9 23.4: Observed Annual Precipitation 19.1: Historical Changes in Hot Days and Warm Nights 2.8: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 4.3: Increasing Numbers of Cooling Degree Days 1.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 51.8: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 21.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 19.3: Historical Change in Heavy Precipitation 33.22: Projected Summertime Precipitation Changes 1.2d: Total Hurricane Events in Alabama 9.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 35.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 27.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 18.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 35.2d: Observed Winter Precipitation 33.3d: Total Hurricane Events in North Carolina 3.3: Observed Number of Extremely Warm Nights 4.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 36.2: Observed Summer Temperature 43.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 41.3c: Observed Annual Precipitation 19.4: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 48.6: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 18.2c-1: Observed Spring Precipitation 33.2b: Observed Winter Temperature 17.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 38.4: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 46.4: Observed Summer Temperature 19.22: Projected Changes in Cooling Degree Days 44.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 37.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 7.3: 2-Day Precipitation Events Exceeding 5-Year Recurrence Interval 33.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 14.3: Growing Season Lengthens 40.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 26.4a: Observed Winter Temperature 33.4: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 22.5: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation Probable maximum precipitation and climate change 39.3d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 3.7: Lake Mead Water Level at Hoover Dam 41.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 22.4: Annual Lake-Wide Average Water Levels for Lake Michigan-Huron Global land surface extremes of precipitation: Data limitations and trends 19.4: Historical Number of Warm Nights 23.2a: Observed Number of Hot Days Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 3. Climate of the Midwest U.S. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-3 17.2a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 13.4a: Observed Spring Precipitation 49.2d-2: Observed Summer Precipitaton 31.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 4. Climate of the U.S. Great Plains. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-4 33.6: Observed and Projected Change in Global Sea Level 39.3a: Observed Number of Warm Nights 1.5: Observed and Projected Change in Global Sea Level 44.4c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 27.3b: Observed Number or Warm Nights 36.3a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 28.9: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 27.2a: Observed Winter Temperature 12.8: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 6. Climate of the Northwest U.S. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-6 3.2a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 18.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 28.6: Lake Mead Elevation at Hoover Dam Observational- and model-based trends and projections of extreme precipitation over the contiguous United States 26.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 46.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 16.2a: Observed Spring Temperature 8.2b: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 19.2a-1: Observed Winter Temperature 43.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 12.5: Observed Annual Precipitation 3.6: Arizona Palmer Drought Severity Index 37.4a: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 1.2: Change in Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 48.5: Observed Annual Precipitation 3.2b-1: Observed Maximum Summer Temperature 1.16: Projected Change in Very Hot Days by 2100 in Phoenix, Arizona 45.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 28.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 28.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 46.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 10.2b: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 1.2b: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 1.3: Projected Changes in U.S. Annual Average Temperatures 4.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 25.2c: Observed Minimum Summer Temperature 15.2b: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 1.3: Projected Changes in Temperature and Precipitation by Mid-Century 35.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 6dafc8d5-9e40-4dd6-a63d-d456ec61a551 21.2a: Observed Number of Hot Days 15.2d: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights SAP 3.1. Climate Models: An Assessment of Strengths and Limitations 13.8: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 2.6: Projected Change in Average Annual Precipitation 18.2: Projected Mid-Century Temperature Changes in the Midwest Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 2. Climate of the Southeast U.S. NOAA Technical Report 142-2 26.2b: Observed Number of Warm Nights -.4: Significantly More Warming Occurs Under Higher Greenhouse Gas Concentration Scenarios 46.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 2.8: Projected Temperature Change 22.2: Projected Changes in Very Hot Days, Cool Days, and Heavy Precipitation 3.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 34.6: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 49.2c: Observed Number of Warm Nights 11.3: Projected Change in Number of Days with Heavy Precipitation 43.4b: Observed Annual Precipitation 38.2a: Observed Number of Hot Days 10.6: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 38.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 8.4: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 35.5: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 6.2b: Observed Summer Temperature 24.2a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 44.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 14.4: Observed Annual Precipitation 24.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 18.7: Ice Cover in the Great Lakes Can CGCMs Simulate the Twentieth-Century “Warming Hole” in the Central United States? beed84d6-d0f9-4c33-a8d3-808ed6eb6e3b 29.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 3.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights U.S. temperature and drought: Recent anomalies and trends 33.5: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 1a061197-95cf-47bd-9db4-f661c711a174 17.4: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 29.5: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 18.2b: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 2.4: Observed and Projected Changes in Annual Average Temperature 6.5: Projected Changes in Key Climate Variables Affecting Agricultural Productivity 45.5: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation A5.18: Short-Term Variability Versus Long-Term Trend Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 7. Climate of Alaska. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-7 31.4b: Observed Annual Precipitation 22.3: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 33.3b: Observed Annual Precipitation 9.6: Projected Change in Summer Precipitation 35.2b: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 44.6: Annual Average Water Levels in the Great Salt Lake at Saltair Boat Harbor 21.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 34.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 44.4d: April 1 Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) at Ben Lomond Peak, UT 24.2d: Observed Summer Precipitation 41.6: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 39.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 15.2a: Observed Summer Temperature 4.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 18.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 33.21: Projected Wintertime Precipitation Changes 16.3d-2: Observed Summer Precipitaton a7c5f0aa-db53-4965-bd56-88e8f7a87a89 1.5: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 6.5a: Observed Number of Warm Nights 49.7: Annual Lake-Wide Average Water Levels for Lake Michigan-Huron 45.2c-a: Observed Summer Temperature 25.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 6.5c-1: Observed Fall Precipitation 36.3c: Observed Annual Precipitation Monitoring and Understanding Trends in Extreme Storms: State of Knowledge 33.5: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 40.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 22.2d: Observed Annual Precipitation 2.4: Emissions Levels Determine Temperature Rises 45.2a: Observed Number of Hot Days 45.2c-b: Observed Winter Temperature 10.2c: Observed Summer Precipitation 7.4: Observed Change in Heavy Precipitation 6.5c-2: Observed Spring Precipitation 44.4c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events Reply to “Comments on ‘Monitoring and understanding trends in extreme storms: State of knowledge’” 4.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 22.2c: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 6.2a: Observed Spring Temperature 48.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 10.3: Texas Summer 2011: Record Heat and Drought 24.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 32.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 49.4: Ice Cover on Lake Mendota 006264b2-8594-4e09-9430-a1d0cc056ff7 nca3 chapter 33 : Appendix 3: Climate Science Supplement 10.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 14.7: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 22.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 25.3a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days Seasonal and regional variations in extreme precipitation event frequency using CMIP5 23.2c: Observed Number of Very Cold Days 37.5: End of Season Snow Water Equivalent Depth at Mt. Hood 2.6: Observed and Projected Change in Heavy Precipitation 15.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 31.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 31.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 29.2a: Observed Number of Hot Days 20.2c: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 27.2b: Observed Summer Temperature 12.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 48.2: Observed Number of Very Hot Days A framework for examining climate-driven changes to the seasonality and geographical range of coastal pathogens and harmful algae 38.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 28.4: Observed Annual Precipitation 43.2: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 42.7: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation Climate Science Special Report: The Fourth National Climate Assessment: Volume I 41.3b: Observed Number or Warm Nights 31.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 2.5: Projected Change in Average Annual Temperature 14.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 50.5: End of Season Snow Water Equivalent Depth at Lewis Lake Divide 41.3d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 26fc56f4-b4e0-425b-adc8-14c6d961d558 Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 9. Climate of the Contiguous United States. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-9 32.2a-1: Observed Winter Temperature 48.7: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 991826ea-5f98-45f2-827e-8fdfc48d07fb 36.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 834f7624-40de-4a09-9ced-faaca30d4d6d 19.2b: Observed Number of Hot Days nca4 chapter 19 : Southeast 18.5: Total Hurricane Events in Louisiana 7.8: Change in the Number of Days Within Precipitation Percentile Intervals 7.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 13.3d: Observed Annual Precipitation 24.8: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 50.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 18.2b: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 31.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 2.9: Projected Temperature Change by 2071-2099 (CMIP5 models) 49.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 33.4: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 44.6: Water Levels in the Great Salt Lake at Saltair Boat Harbor 32.2b: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 39.3c: Observed Annual Precipitation 35.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 18.2e: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 30.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 17.5: Projected Change in Number of Nights Below 32°F nca4 chapter A5 : Appendix 5: Frequently Asked Questions 44.2: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 9.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 35.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change Meteorological Causes of the Secular Variations in Observed Extreme Precipitation Events for the Conterminous United States A5.11: Comparison of Climate Models and Observed Temperature Change 42.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 10.4: Observed Annual Precipitation 42.4: Observed Annual Precipitation 13.2a: Observed Spring Temperature 3.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation Monitoring and Understanding Changes in Extremes: Extratropical Storms, Winds, and Waves 26.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Days 18.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 1.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 6.8: Colorado Palmer Drought Severity Index 2.15: Newer Simulations for Projected Precipitation Change (CMIP5 models) 50.4b: Observed Number of Very Cold Days 18.2c: Observed Spring Precipitation 33.2a: Observed Summer Temperature 24.2b: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 2.2: Global Temperature and Carbon Dioxide 50.4a-2: Observed Summer Temperature 1.4: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 25.2b: Observed Maximum Summer Temperature cfafefc7-f04f-4cb3-8e7e-2978c92e2ae4 nca3 chapter 34 : Appendix 4: Frequently Asked Questions 17.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation The response of Great Lakes water levels to future climate scenarios with an emphasis on Lake Michigan-Huron 36.7: Projected Change in Summer Precipitation 16.3a: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 7.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 31.4c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 23.2b: Observed Number of Warm Nights 30.2b: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 42.6: Observed Summer Precipitaton Indicator: Heavy Precipitation 45.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 18.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 31.7: New Mexico Palmer Drought Severity Index 11.2: Projected Change in the Number of Very Hot Days Regional Surface Climate Conditions in CMIP3 and CMIP5 for the United States: Differences, Similarities, and Implications for the U.S. National Climate Assessment 34.8: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 21.7: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 26.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation Impacts, Risks, and Adaptation in the United States: The Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume II 1.4: Projected Changes in Hottest/Coldest and Wettest/Driest Day of the Year 12.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 14.2b: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 21.5: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 31.4d: Observed Monsoon Season Precipitation 31.4a: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 13.6: Annual Lake-Wide Average Water Levels for Lake Michigan-Huron 9.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 34.5: Observed Annual Precipitation 4.6: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 34.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Days 32.2a-2: Observed Summer Temperature 2.13: Annual Maximum Precipitation and Changes in Consecutive Dry Days 25.3c: Observed Annual Precipitation 18.7: Projected Change in Summer Precipitation 10.4: Changes in Length of Growing Season 44.5: Utah Palmer Drought Severity Index 17.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton nca4 chapter 2 : Our Changing Climate 25.4: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 30.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 15.3b: Observed Summer Precipitaton 23.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 18.6: When it Rains, it Pours 49.2d-1: Observed Winter Precipitation 19.2: Projected Change in Number of Hot Days 17.2b-1: Observed Winter Temperature 3.2b-2: Observed Minimum Summer Temperature 22.2b: Observed Number of Warm Nights 19.4: Projected Change in Number of Heavy Precipitation Days 41.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Days 46.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 48.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 37.4c: Observed Annual Precipitation 13.2b: Observed Summer Temperature 27.3c: Observed Annual Precipitation 40.2b: Observed Number of Days Below Freezing 43.4c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 15.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 9.2d: Total Hurricane Events in Florida, 1900-2013 46.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change Trends in Twentieth-Century U.S. Snowfall Using a Quality-Controlled Dataset 5.8: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 9.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 34.12: Measurements of Surface Temperature and Sun’s Energy 4.4: Projected Changes in Seasonal Precipitation 45.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 35.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016 Appendix 1: Technical Support Document Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 8. Climate of the Pacific Islands. U.S. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-8 36.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 27.3d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 16.3b: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 4.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 17.2b-2: Observed Summer Temperature 47.7: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation Detection and attribution of climate extremes in the observed record 5bd64870-4e8e-45cb-9b2c-83c52f5af397 41.3a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 20.2d: Observed Annual Precipitation CMIP5 Climate Model Analyses: Climate Extremes in the United States 33.3d: Total Hurricane Events in North Carolina 19.2a-2: Observed Summer Temperature 31.4c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation 1.2: Global Land and Ocean Temperature Anamolies 10.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change -.3: Sensitivity Analysis of Differences in Modeling Approaches 44.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 13.3a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 7.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 34.2: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 5.3: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 7447d9e8-b0d8-4009-af97-fce115235283 nca3 chapter 2 : Our Changing Climate 25.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 24.8: Observed and Projected Change in Global Sea Level 2.7: Observed U.S. Temperature Change 16.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 5.7: California Palmer Drought Severity Index 37.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 25.1: Temperature Has Increased Across the Southwest 34.19: Observed and Projected U.S. Temperature Change Monitoring and Understanding Changes in Heat Waves, Cold Waves, Floods, and Droughts in the United States: State of Knowledge 22.2a: Observed Number of Hot Days 7.5: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 8.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 31.2: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 47.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 40.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 6.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 43.8: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 40.5: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 50.6: Projected Change in Spring Precipitation 18.8: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 23.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 25.10: Projected Increases in Extreme Heat 6.7: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 18.2d: Observed Fall Precipitation 5.2d: Observed Winter Precipitation 1.3: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 1.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 19.15: Projected Changes in Plant Hardiness Zones 6.7: Projected Changes in Annual Average Temperatures 15.3a: Observed Spring Precipitation 44.2: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 43e4c69f-2e48-4edc-ad0b-c0508a35f6d7 17.4: Projected Change in Number of Days Over 95°F 24.7: Projected Change in Summer Precipitation Effects of ocean warming on growth and distribution of dinoflagellates associated with ciguatera fish poisoning in the Caribbean 29.2d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 35.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 27.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 46.6: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 38.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events A surface energy budget view of the 1988 midwestern United States drought The seasonal nature of extreme hydrological events in the northeastern United States 39.2: Observed Number of Hot Days 37.4b: Observed Number of Warm Nights -.6: Extreme Precipitation Has Increased Across Much of the United States 33.3c: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 46.2b: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 35.2d-1: Observed Winter Precipitation 20.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 19.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 13.4b: Observed Summer Precipitaton 50.2: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 30.7: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 31.5: Storage Levels in Elephant Butte Reservoir 34.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 41.7: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 49.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Days nca4 chapter A3 : Appendix 3: Data Tools and Scenario Products 20.4: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 2.14: Projected Precipitation Change by Season 5.6: Storage Levels in the Shasta Dam Reservoir 19.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 2.10: Observed Increase in Frost-Free Season Length 8.6: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level fbad1b23-b576-4996-a75a-3fe2a1c8dde9 40.2d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 23.4: Projected Increase in Number of Days Above 100°F 14.2d-2: Observed Summer Precipitaton 17.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 14.2d-1: Observed Spring Precipitaton 6.5d: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 30.4: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events A5.20: Extreme Temperature and Precipitation Events 44.7: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 25.3d: Observed Summer Precipitaton 14.6: Annual Lake-Wide Average Water Levels for Lake Michigan-Huron 16.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016 chapter 1 : Climate Change and Human Health 20.2b: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 2.5: Observed and Projected Change in Seasonal Precipitation 22cf98ca-20af-4fc0-ba4d-ef7234aa5be5 2d6fb90b-7d3d-4fce-8f63-36459f80d366 Temporal variations of extreme precipitation events in the United States: 1895–2000 29.4: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 21.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 39.5: Projected Change in Annual Precipitation 49.6: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 36.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 49.2b: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 40.2a: Observed Number of Extremely Hot Days 32.5: Observed Number of Extreme Precipitation Events 4.4: Observed Summer Temperature 33.6: Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level 6.6: End of Season Snow Water Equivalent Depth at Tower 16.3c: Observed Annual Precipitation 24.2c: Observed Annual Precipitation 30.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 10.3: Observed and Projected Changes in Frost-Free Season 44.4b: Observed Annual Precipitation 6.3: Observed Number of Very Hot Days 50.3: Observed Number of Warm Nights 44.4a: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 19.3: Projected Change in Number of Warm Nights 23.1: Monitoring Precipitation Across the Southern Great Plains 2.17: Observed Change in Very Heavy Precipitation 4.2b: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 13.3b: Observed Number of Very Warm Nights 21.4: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 29.3: Observed Number of Very Cold Nights 35.2d-2: Observed Summer Precipitation 27.6: Projected Change in Winter Precipitation 9.2a: Observed Number of Very Hot Days Recent increases in U.S. heavy precipitation associated with tropical cyclones 29.1: Observed and Projected Temperature Change 19.2: Historical Change in Freeze-Free Season Length
Howard Kunreuther National Bureau of Economic Research University of Pennsylvania Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania Wharton Risk Management and Decision Processes Center Wharton School of Business Department of Operations and Information Management At War with the Weather: Manag... Making America more resilient toward natural disasters: A call for action Climate Change, Insurability of Large-Scale Disasters and the Emerging Liability Challenge. NBER Working Paper 12821 At War with the Weather: Manag... Risk management and climate change Risk, Media and Stigma: Unders... Redesigning Flood Insurance nca3 chapter 26 : Decision Support: Connecting Science, Risk Perception, and Decisions Risk Analysis and Risk Management in an Uncertain World Catastrophe Modeling: A New Ap... Decision Processes for Low Probability Events: Policy Implications A Methodological Approach for Pricing Flood Insurance and Evaluating Loss Reduction Measures: Application to Texas, Wharton Risk Management Center and CoreLogic, Philadelphia, PA and Santa Ana, CA
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Hans Kupfersberger 0000-0001-6952-7992 Joanneum Research Climate change impacts on groundwater and dependent ecosystems
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Jaise Kuriakose 0000-0002-8536-8984 The Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research University of Manchester Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering What if negative emission technologies fail at scale? Implications of the Paris Agreement for big emitting nations
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Klaus Kurtenbach Active and Passive Surveillance and Phylogenetic Analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi Elucidate the Process of Lyme Disease Risk Emergence in Canada
Nathan Kurtz Morgan State University CryoSat-2 estimates of Arctic sea ice thickness and volume
Daniel Kurtzman The University of Texas at Austin Bureau of Economic Geology The University of Texas at Austin Jackson School of Geosciences El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Pacific Decadal Oscillation impacts on precipitation in the southern and central United States: Evaluation of spatial distribution and predictions
Michael J. Kurylo National Aeronautics and Space Administration SAP 2.4. Trends in Emissions of Ozone-Depleting Substances, Ozone Layer Recovery, and Implications for Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure
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Raymond Kurz Southwest Florida Water Management District Surface Water Improvement Program The effects of seasonal variability and weather on microbial fecal pollution and enteric pathogens in a subtropical estuary
Werner Kurz 0000-0003-4576-7849 Canadian Forest Service Canadian Forestry Service Pacific Forestry Centre Natural Resources Canada Reconciling estimates of the contemporary North American carbon balance among terrestrial biosphere models, atmospheric inversions, and a new approach for estimating net ecosystem exchange from inventory-based data 9.5: Effects of Natural Disturbances on Carbon Dynamics in Canada’s Managed Forests second-state-carbon-cycle-report-soccr2-sustained-assessment-report chapter 2 : The North American Carbon Budget second-state-carbon-cycle-report-soccr2-sustained-assessment-report chapter 9 : Forests Interannual and spatial impacts of phenological transitions, growing season length, and spring and autumn temperatures on carbon sequestration: A North America flux data synthesis Mountain pine beetle and forest carbon feedback to climate change Assessment of boreal forest historical C dynamics in the Yukon River Basin: relative roles of warming and fire regime change A Large and Persistent Carbon Sink in the World's Forests Forest Carbon Sinks in the Northern Hemisphere Risk of natural disturbances makes future contribution of Canada's forests to the global carbon cycle highly uncertain
Jürgen Kusche 0000-0001-7069-021X University of Bonn Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformation Revisiting the contemporary sea-level budget on global and regional scales
Paul Kushner 0000-0002-6404-4518 University of Toronto Department of Physics The Community Earth System Model (CESM) large ensemble project: A community resource for studying climate change in the presence of internal climate variability
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