reference : Case study: Whitebark pine in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem

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Abstract Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), an iconic tree species generally associated with upper subalpine ecosystems, provides an excellent case study for studying the potential impacts of climate change on a species at the landscape level and how it affects the conservation of that species. Whitebark pine is considered a keystone species in that it dominates areas where other tree species grow poorly or not at all and has broad effects on ecosystem processes. Whitebark pine canopies help regulate snowmelt, extending the length of spring runoff and reducing erosion (Tomback et al. 2001; Farnes 1990). Its large, calorie-rich seeds are a valuable food source for a variety of wildlife species, including grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis), which obtain the seeds almost exclusively by raiding red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) middens (Reinhart and Mattson 1990; Mattson, Tomback, and Reinhart 2001). Upon establishment on high-elevation slopes and other harsh sites, whitebark pine provides favorable microsites for the growth of other plant species, thus increasing ecosystem biodiversity (Keane et al. 2012).
Author Buermeyer, Karl; Reinhart, Daniel; Legg, Kristin
Book Title Climate Change in Wildlands: Pioneering Approaches to Science and Management
DOI 10.5822/978-1-61091-713-1_15
Editor Hansen, Andrew J.; Monahan, William B.; Olliff, S. Thomas; Theobald, David M.
ISBN 978-1-61091-713-1
Pages 304-326
Place Published Washington, DC
Publisher Island Press/Center for Resource Economics
Title Case study: Whitebark pine in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem
Year 2016
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.reference_type 7
_record_number 21608
_uuid 0b8ee01c-994b-4b68-b747-176c53144b3c