reference : Cooling of US Midwest summer temperature extremes from cropland intensification

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Bibliographic fields
reftype Journal Article
Abstract High temperature extremes during the growing season can reduce agricultural production. At the same time, agricultural practices can modify temperatures by altering the surface energy budget. Here we identify centennial trends towards more favourable growing conditions in the US Midwest, including cooler summer temperature extremes and increased precipitation, and investigate the origins of these shifts. Statistically significant correspondence is found between the cooling pattern and trends in cropland intensification, as well as with trends towards greater irrigated land over a small subset of the domain. Land conversion to cropland, often considered an important influence on historical temperatures, is not significantly associated with cooling. We suggest that agricultural intensification increases the potential for evapotranspiration, leading to cooler temperatures and contributing to increased precipitation. The tendency for greater evapotranspiration on hotter days is consistent with our finding that cooling trends are greatest for the highest temperature percentiles. Temperatures over rainfed croplands show no cooling trend during drought conditions, consistent with evapotranspiration requiring adequate soil moisture, and implying that modern drought events feature greater warming as baseline cooler temperatures revert to historically high extremes.
Author Mueller, Nathaniel D.; Butler, Ethan E.; McKinnon, Karen A.; Rhines, Andrew; Tingley, Martin; Holbrook, N. Michele; Huybers, Peter
DOI 10.1038/nclimate2825
Date 03//print
Issue 3
Journal Nature Climate Change
Pages 317-322
Title Cooling of US Midwest summer temperature extremes from cropland intensification
Volume 6
Year 2016
Bibliographic identifiers
.publisher Nature Publishing Group
.reference_type 0
_record_number 20849
_uuid 15626faf-aefa-49de-a4c0-7234556eaeda