reference : Human enteric viruses in groundwater indicate offshore transport of human sewage to coral reefs of the Upper Florida Keys

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Bibliographic fields
reftype Journal Article
Abstract To address the issue of human sewage reaching corals along the main reef of the Florida Keys, samples were collected from surface water, groundwater and coral [surface mucopolysaccharide layers (SML)] along a 10 km transect near Key Largo, FL. Samples were collected semi-annually between July 2003 and September 2005 and processed for faecal indicator bacteria (faecal coliform bacteria, enterococci and Clostridium perfringens) and human-specific enteric viruses (enterovirus RNA and adenovirus DNA) by (RT)-nested polymerase chain reaction. Faecal indicator bacteria concentrations were generally higher nearshore and in the coral SML. Enteric viruses were evenly distributed across the transect stations. Adenoviruses were detected in 37 of 75 samples collected (49.3%) whereas enteroviruses were only found in 8 of 75 samples (10.7%). Both viruses were detected twice as frequently in coral compared with surface water or groundwater. Offshore, viruses were most likely to be found in groundwater, especially during the wet summer season. These data suggest that polluted groundwater may be moving to the outer reef environment in the Florida Keys.
Author Futch, J. C.; Griffin, D. W.; Lipp, E. K.
DOI 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2010.02141.x
Date Apr
ISSN 1462-2920
Issue 4
Journal Environmental Microbiology
Keywords Adenoviridae/*isolation & purification; Animals; Anthozoa/*virology; DNA, Viral/isolation & purification; Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification; Enterovirus/*isolation & purification; Feces/microbiology/virology; Florida; Fresh Water/virology; Humans; Polymerase Chain Reaction; RNA, Viral/isolation & purification; Seawater/virology; Sewage/*virology; *Water Microbiology; Water Pollutants/analysis
Language eng
Notes 1462-2920 Futch, J Carrie Griffin, Dale W Lipp, Erin K Journal Article Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. England Environ Microbiol. 2010 Apr;12(4):964-74. doi: 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2010.02141.x. Epub 2009 Dec 26.
Pages 964-974
Title Human enteric viruses in groundwater indicate offshore transport of human sewage to coral reefs of the Upper Florida Keys
Volume 12
Year 2010
Bibliographic identifiers
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_record_number 19052
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