reference : Accelerating loss of seagrasses across the globe threatens coastal ecosystems

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Bibliographic fields
reftype Journal Article
Abstract Coastal ecosystems and the services they provide are adversely affected by a wide variety of human activities. In particular, seagrass meadows are negatively affected by impacts accruing from the billion or more people who live within 50 km of them. Seagrass meadows provide important ecosystem services, including an estimated $1.9 trillion per year in the form of nutrient cycling; an order of magnitude enhancement of coral reef fish productivity; a habitat for thousands of fish, bird, and invertebrate species; and a major food source for endangered dugong, manatee, and green turtle. Although individual impacts from coastal development, degraded water quality, and climate change have been documented, there has been no quantitative global assessment of seagrass loss until now. Our comprehensive global assessment of 215 studies found that seagrasses have been disappearing at a rate of 110 km(2) yr(-1) since 1980 and that 29% of the known areal extent has disappeared since seagrass areas were initially recorded in 1879. Furthermore, rates of decline have accelerated from a median of 0.9% yr(-1) before 1940 to 7% yr(-1) since 1990. Seagrass loss rates are comparable to those reported for mangroves, coral reefs, and tropical rainforests and place seagrass meadows among the most threatened ecosystems on earth.
Author Waycott, M.; Duarte, C. M.; Carruthers, T. J.; Orth, R. J.; Dennison, W. C.; Olyarnik, S.; Calladine, A.; Fourqurean, J. W.; Heck, K. L., Jr.; Hughes, A. R.; Kendrick, G. A.; Kenworthy, W. J.; Short, F. T.; Williams, S. L.
Author Address School of Marine and Tropical Biology, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811, Australia.
DOI 10.1073/pnas.0905620106
Database Provider CCII PubMed NLM
Date Jul 28
EPub Date 2009/07/10
ISSN 1091-6490 (Electronic) 0027-8424 (Linking)
Issue 30
Journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Keywords Alismatidae/ growth & development; Animals; Conservation of Natural Resources/methods/ statistics & numerical data; Ecosystem; Environmental Monitoring/methods/ statistics & numerical data; Humans; Marine Biology; Population Density; Population Dynamics; Seawater
Language eng
Notes Waycott, Michelle Duarte, Carlos M Carruthers, Tim J B Orth, Robert J Dennison, William C Olyarnik, Suzanne Calladine, Ainsley Fourqurean, James W Heck, Kenneth L Jr Hughes, A Randall Kendrick, Gary A Kenworthy, W Judson Short, Frederick T Williams, Susan L Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. United States Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Jul 28;106(30):12377-81. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0905620106. Epub 2009 Jul 8.
PMCID 2707273
Pages 12377-81
Research Notes CCII Unique - PDF retrieved
Title Accelerating loss of seagrasses across the globe threatens coastal ecosystems
Volume 106
Year 2009
Bibliographic identifiers
_record_number 8444
_uuid 1fc654e7-6602-44f3-99ed-0db8b915655f