reference : Apparent loss of Vibrio vulnificus from North Carolina oysters coincides with a drought-induced increase in salinity

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/reference/226d31a2-0831-48a5-b8fd-f1093c62db54
Bibliographic fields
reftype Journal Article
Abstract Despite years of successful isolation of Vibrio vulnificus from estuarine waters, beginning in 2007, it was extremely difficult to culture V. vulnificus from either North Carolina estuarine water or oyster samples. After employing culture-based methods as well as PCR and quantitative PCR for the detection of V. vulnificus, always with negative results, we concluded that this pathogen had become nearly undetectable in the North Carolina estuarine ecosystem. We ensured that the techniques were sound by seeding North Carolina oysters with V. vulnificus and performing the same tests as those previously conducted on unadulterated oysters. V. vulnificus was readily detected in the seeded oysters using both classes of methods. Furthermore, oysters were obtained from the Gulf of Mexico, and V. vulnificus was easily isolated, confirming that the methodology was sound but that the oysters and waters of North Carolina were lacking the V. vulnificus population studied for decades. Strikingly, the apparent loss of detectable V. vulnificus coincided with the most severe drought in the history of North Carolina. The drought continued until the end of 2009, with an elevated water column salinity being observed throughout this period and with V. vulnificus being nearly nonexistent. When salinities returned to normal after the drought abated in 2010, we were again able to routinely isolate V. vulnificus from the water column, although we were still unable to culture it from oysters. We suggest that the oysters were colonized with a more salt-tolerant bacterium during the drought, which displaced V. vulnificus and may be preventing recolonization.
Author Froelich, B. A.; Williams, T. C.; Noble, R. T.; Oliver, J. D.
DOI 10.1128/aem.07855-11
Date Jun
ISSN 0099-2240
Issue 11
Journal Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Keywords Animals; Colony Count, Microbial; *Droughts; North Carolina; Ostreidae/*microbiology; Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods; *Salinity; Seasons; Vibrio vulnificus/*isolation & purification; Water Microbiology
Language eng
Notes 1098-5336 Froelich, Brett A Williams, Tiffany C Noble, Rachel T Oliver, James D OCE-0813147/PHS HHS/United States Journal Article Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. United States Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012 Jun;78(11):3885-9. doi: 10.1128/AEM.07855-11. Epub 2012 Mar 23.
Pages 3885-3889
Title Apparent loss of Vibrio vulnificus from North Carolina oysters coincides with a drought-induced increase in salinity
Volume 78
Year 2012
Bibliographic identifiers
.reference_type 0
_record_number 19051
_uuid 226d31a2-0831-48a5-b8fd-f1093c62db54