reference : Leptospirosis in Hawaii, USA, 1999–2008

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Bibliographic fields
reftype Journal Article
Abstract Although infrequently diagnosed in the United States, leptospirosis is a notable reemerging infectious disease throughout developing countries. Until 1995, when the disease was eliminated from the US list of nationally notifiable diseases, Hawaii led the nation in reported annual incidence rates. Leptospirosis remains a notifiable disease in Hawaii. To ascertain the status of leptospirosis in Hawaii since the most recent US report in 2002, we reviewed 1999–2008 data obtained from case investigation reports by the Hawaii State Department of Health. Of the 345 case reports related to in-state exposures, 198 (57%) were laboratory confirmed. Our findings indicate a change in seasonal disease occurrence from summer to winter and in the infective serogroup from Icterohemorrhagiae to Australis. Also, during the past 20 years, recreational exposures have plateaued, while occupational exposures have increased. Ongoing surveillance is needed to clarify and track the dynamic epidemiology of this widespread zoonosis.
Author Katz, Alan R.; Buchholz, Arlene E.; Hinson, Kialani; Park, Sarah Y.; Effler, Paul V.
DOI 10.3201/eid1702.101109
ISSN 1080-6059
Issue 2
Journal Emerging Infectious Diseases
Notes 10-1109[PII] 21291592[pmid] Emerg Infect Dis
Pages 221-226
Title Leptospirosis in Hawaii, USA, 1999–2008
Volume 17
Year 2011
Bibliographic identifiers
.publisher Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
.reference_type 0
_record_number 19033
_uuid 22a12098-889a-4048-9a0f-95105dcbdebc