reference : Survival and development of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) under various climatic conditions in Ontario, Canada

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reftype Journal Article
Abstract Distribution of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, is poorly defined in Ontario. An endemic population is known on Long Point peninsula, Lake Erie, Ontario, but I. scapularis adults have also been collected from other localities within the province. To test the hypothesis that distribution of the blacklegged tick is limited by cold climatic extremes, 35 fed female, 70 unfed adult, and 70 unfed nymphal I. scapularis were held in containers within four natural habitats on Long Point (42 degrees 36' N; 80 degrees 5' W) and at northern localities near Ottawa (45 degrees 27' N; 75 degrees 42' W), Hearst (49 degrees 40' N; 83 degrees 41' W), and Kenora (49 degrees 47' N; 94 degrees 29' W), Ontario, from early December 1991 until May 1993. At the northern localities, 84.8 and 30.5% of fed females and unfed adults survived overwinter, respectively. On Long Point, 56.4% of fed females and 23.6% of unfed adults successfully overwintered. Longevity of fed females and unfed adults was increased by > 2 mo at the northern localities compared with Long Point, although survival rates for unfed nymphs at the northern sites and on Long Point were similar. Females within the four habitats on Long Point, and at Kenora and Ottawa, laid eggs from late April to mid-May, whereas eggs were deposited in late June at Hearst. Emergence of larvae from eggs began in late July or early August on Long Point and at Ottawa. Larvae were first observed in early October at Kenora, and no larvae emerged during 1992 at Hearst. Some eggs that overwintered during 1992-1993 at the northern sites were viable; however, hatching rate was < 10%. The minimum duration of the life cycle of I. scapularis is extended when ticks are introduced into regions of the province with seasonal degree-day accumulations lower than those observed on Long Point. Delays in deposition of eggs and emergence of larvae at Hearst and Kenora were likely a result of insufficient accumulation of degree-days above threshold temperatures for development in 1992. Though some eggs can overwinter successfully, suggesting that latitude-related reduction in seasonal temperature may not limit distribution of this tick in Ontario, hatchability was low. This factor, combined with innate incremental mortality at each instar, difficulty in finding a mate, and low density of medium to large mammal hosts for adults, may mitigate against establishment of I. scapularis by introduction of individual ticks into certain northern regions.
Author Lindsay, L. R.; Barker, I. K.; Surgeoner, G. A.; McEwen, S. A.; Gillespie, T. J.; Robinson, J. T.
DOI 10.1093/jmedent/32.2.143
Date Mar
ISSN 1938-2928
Issue 2
Journal Journal of Medical Entomology
Keywords Animals; *Cold Climate; Female; Larva; Nymph; Ontario; Oviposition; Ticks/*growth & development
Notes Lindsay, L R Barker, I K Surgeoner, G A McEwen, S A Gillespie, T J Robinson, J T eng Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 1995/03/01 J Med Entomol. 1995 Mar;32(2):143-52.
Pages 143-152
Title Survival and development of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) under various climatic conditions in Ontario, Canada
Volume 32
Year 1995
Bibliographic identifiers
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_record_number 18012
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