reference : Dynamical downscaling–based projections of Great Lakes water levels

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/reference/5295673e-703b-42f8-9792-4ccf8e3cf747
Bibliographic fields
reftype Journal Article
Abstract Projections of regional climate, net basin supply (NBS), and water levels are developed for the mid- and late twenty-first century across the Laurentian Great Lakes basin. Two state-of-the-art global climate models (GCMs) are dynamically downscaled using a regional climate model (RCM) interactively coupled to a one-dimensional lake model, and then a hydrologic routing model is forced with time series of perturbed NBS. The dynamical downscaling and coupling with a lake model to represent the Great Lakes create added value beyond the parent GCM in terms of simulated seasonal cycles of temperature, precipitation, and surface fluxes. However, limitations related to this rudimentary treatment of the Great Lakes result in warm summer biases in lake temperatures, excessive ice cover, and an abnormally early peak in lake evaporation. While the downscaling of both GCMs led to consistent projections of increases in annual air temperature, precipitation, and all NBS components (overlake precipitation, basinwide runoff, and lake evaporation), the resulting projected water level trends are opposite in sign. Clearly, it is not sufficient to correctly simulate the signs of the projected change in each NBS component; one must also account for their relative magnitudes. The potential risk of more frequent episodes of lake levels below the low water datum, a critical shipping threshold, is explored.
Author Notaro, Michael; Val Bennington; Brent Lofgren
DOI 10.1175/jcli-d-14-00847.1
Issue 24
Journal Journal of Climate
Keywords Geographic location/entity,Inland seas/lakes,Atm/Ocean Structure/ Phenomena,Freshwater,Physical Meteorology and Climatology,Climate change,Hydrology,Models and modeling,Regional models,Variability,Climate variability
Pages 9721-9745
Title Dynamical downscaling–based projections of Great Lakes water levels
Volume 28
Year 2015
Bibliographic identifiers
_record_number 21203
_uuid 5295673e-703b-42f8-9792-4ccf8e3cf747