reference : The National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS): A resource for assessing exposure to environmental pollutants

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/reference/558272eb-342a-4b51-adc6-485a70a24b54
Bibliographic fields
reftype Journal Article
Abstract Because human activities impact the timing, location, and degree of pollutant exposure, they play a key role in explaining exposure variation. This fact has motivated the collection of activity pattern data for their specific use in exposure assessments. The largest of these recent efforts is the National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS), a 2-year probability-based telephone survey (n=9386) of exposure-related human activities in the United States (U.S.) sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The primary purpose of NHAPS was to provide comprehensive and current exposure information over broad geographical and temporal scales, particularly for use in probabilistic population exposure models. NHAPS was conducted on a virtually daily basis from late September 1992 through September 1994 by the University of Maryland's Survey Research Center using a computer-assisted telephone interview instrument (CATI) to collect 24-h retrospective diaries and answers to a number of personal and exposure-related questions from each respondent. The resulting diary records contain beginning and ending times for each distinct combination of location and activity occurring on the diary day (i.e., each microenvironment). Between 340 and 1713 respondents of all ages were interviewed in each of the 10 EPA regions across the 48 contiguous states. Interviews were completed in 63% of the households contacted. NHAPS respondents reported spending an average of 87% of their time in enclosed buildings and about 6% of their time in enclosed vehicles. These proportions are fairly constant across the various regions of the U.S. and Canada and for the California population between the late 1980s, when the California Air Resources Board (CARB) sponsored a state-wide activity pattern study, and the mid-1990s, when NHAPS was conducted. However, the number of people exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in California seems to have decreased over the same time period, where exposure is determined by the reported time spent with a smoker. In both California and the entire nation, the most time spent exposed to ETS was reported to take place in residential locations.
Author Klepeis, N. E.; Nelson, W. C.; Ott, W. R.; Robinson, J. P.; Tsang, A. M.; Switzer, P.; Behar, J. V.; Hern, S. C.; Engelmann, W. H.
DOI 10.1038/sj.jea.7500165
Date May-Jun
ISSN 1053-4245
Issue 3
Journal Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology
Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Child; Child, Preschool; *Data Collection; *Environmental Exposure; *Environmental Pollution; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; *Models, Statistical; Population Surveillance/*methods; *Questionnaires; United States/epidemiology
Language eng
Notes Klepeis, N E Nelson, W C Ott, W R Robinson, J P Tsang, A M Switzer, P Behar, J V Hern, S C Engelmann, W H Journal Article Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. United States J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol. 2001 May-Jun;11(3):231-52.
Pages 231-252
Title The National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS): A resource for assessing exposure to environmental pollutants
Volume 11
Year 2001
Bibliographic identifiers
.reference_type 0
_record_number 18504
_uuid 558272eb-342a-4b51-adc6-485a70a24b54