reference : Global warming will bring new fungal diseases for mammals

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Bibliographic fields
reftype Journal Article
Abstract Fungi are major pathogens of plants, other fungi, rotifers, insects, and amphibians, but relatively few cause disease in mammals. Fungi became important human pathogens only in the late 20th century, primarily in hosts with impaired immunity as a consequence of medical interventions or HIV infection. The relatively high resistance of mammals has been attributed to a combination of a complex immune system and endothermy. Mammals maintain high body temperatures relative to environmental temperatures, creating a thermally restrictive ambient for the majority of fungi. According to this view, protection given by endothermy requires a temperature gradient between those of mammals and the environment. We hypothesize that global warming will increase the prevalence of fungal diseases in mammals by two mechanisms: (i) increasing the geographic range of currently pathogenic species and (ii) selecting for adaptive thermotolerance for species with significant pathogenic potential but currently not pathogenic by virtue of being restricted by mammalian temperatures. © 2010 Garcia-Solache and Casadevall.
Author Garcia-Solache, M. A.; Casadevall, A.
DOI 10.1128/mBio.00061-10
ISSN 2150-7511
Issue 1
Journal mBio
Keywords acquired immune deficiency syndrome; article; body temperature; climate change; cryptococcosis; Cryptococcus gattii; Cryptococcus laurentii; Cryptococcus neoformans; environmental temperature; greenhouse effect; heat tolerance; human; immune system; mammal; Metarhizium anisopliae; mycosis; nonhuman; Paracoccidioides brasiliensis; Penicillium marneffei; prevalence; priority journal; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; species extinction; temperature acclimatization; Amphibia; Fungi; Hexapoda; Mammalia; Rotifera
Notes Cited By (since 1996):16 Export Date: 7 November 2013 Source: Scopus Language of Original Document: English Correspondence Address: Casadevall, A.; Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Bronx, NY, United States; email:
Pages e00061-10
Title Global warming will bring new fungal diseases for mammals
Volume 1
Year 2010
Bibliographic identifiers
.reference_type 0
_record_number 6826
_uuid 64d84ae7-e105-485a-907b-52a9ba985039