reference : Revisiting the Earth’s sea-level and energy budgets from 1961 to 2008

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Bibliographic fields
reftype Journal Article
Abstract We review the sea-level and energy budgets together from 1961, using recent and updated estimates of all terms. From 1972 to 2008, the observed sea-level rise (1.8 ± 0.2 mm yr−1 from tide gauges alone and 2.1 ± 0.2 mm yr−1 from a combination of tide gauges and altimeter observations) agrees well with the sum of contributions (1.8 ± 0.4 mm yr−1) in magnitude and with both having similar increases in the rate of rise during the period. The largest contributions come from ocean thermal expansion (0.8 mm yr−1) and the melting of glaciers and ice caps (0.7 mm yr−1), with Greenland and Antarctica contributing about 0.4 mm yr−1. The cryospheric contributions increase through the period (particularly in the 1990s) but the thermosteric contribution increases less rapidly. We include an improved estimate of aquifer depletion (0.3 mm yr−1), partially offsetting the retention of water in dams and giving a total terrestrial storage contribution of −0.1 mm yr−1. Ocean warming (90% of the total of the Earth's energy increase) continues through to the end of the record, in agreement with continued greenhouse gas forcing. The aerosol forcing, inferred as a residual in the atmospheric energy balance, is estimated as −0.8 ± 0.4 W m−2 for the 1980s and early 1990s. It increases in the late 1990s, as is required for consistency with little surface warming over the last decade. This increase is likely at least partially related to substantial increases in aerosol emissions from developing nations and moderate volcanic activity.
Author Church, J. A. White, N.J. Konikow, L.F. Domingues, C.M. Cogley, J.G. Rignot, E. Gregory, J.M. van den Broeke, M.R. Monaghan, A.J. Velicogna, I.
DOI 10.1029/2011GL048794
ISSN 0094-8276
Issue 18
Journal Geophysical Research Letters
Keywords aerosol; energy budget; sea level; 0720 Cryosphere: Glaciers; 0726 Cryosphere: Ice sheets; 1641 Global Change: Sea level change (1222, 1225, 4304, 4556); 4556 Oceanography: Physical: Sea level: variations and mean (1222, 1225, 1641)
Pages L18601
Title Revisiting the Earth’s sea-level and energy budgets from 1961 to 2008
Volume 38
Year 2011
Bibliographic identifiers
.publisher AGU
.reference_type 0
_chapter ["RF 3","Ch. 2: Our Changing Climate FINAL","Appendix 3: Climate Science FINAL"]
_record_number 1454
_uuid 94bb1e23-8dcb-42ba-87e9-6ba5119e1984