reference : Impact of Citywide Blackout on an Urban Emergency Medical Services System

JSON YAML text HTML Turtle N-Triples JSON Triples RDF+XML RDF+JSON Graphviz SVG
/reference/9d80ee92-5d59-4dd5-858f-8818b9d692b4
Bibliographic fields
reftype Journal Article
Abstract INTRODUCTION: On 14 August 2003, New York City and a large portion of the northeastern United States experienced the largest blackout in the history of the country. An analysis of such a widespread disaster on emergency medical service (EMS) operations may assist in planning for and managing such disasters in the future. METHODS: A retrospective review of all EMS activity within New York City's 9-1-1 emergency telephone system during the 29 hours during which all or parts of the city were without power (16:11 hours (h) on 14 August 2003 until 21:03 h on 15 August 2003) was performed. Control periods were established utilizing identical time periods during the five weeks preceding the blackout. RESULTS: Significant increases were identified in the overall EMS demand (7,844 incidents vs. 3,860 incidents; p < 0.001) as well as in 20 of the 62 call-types of the system, including cardiac arrests (119 vs. 76, p = 0.043). Significant decreases were found only among calls related to psychological emergencies (114 vs. 221; p = 0.006) and drug- or alcohol-related emergencies (78 vs. 146; p = 0.009). Though median response times increased by only 60 seconds, median call-processing times within the 9-1-1 emergency telephone system EMS dispatch center of the city increased from 1.1 to 5.5 minutes. CONCLUSIONS: The citywide blackout resulted in dramatic changes in the demands upon the EMS system of New York City, the types of patients for whom EMS providers were assigned to provide care, and the dispositions for those assignments. During this time of increased, system-wide demand, the use of cross-trained firefighter and first-responder engine companies resulted in improved response times to cardiac arrest patients. Finally, the ability of the EMS dispatch center to process the increased requests for EMS assistance proved to be the rate-limiting step in responding to these emergencies. These findings will prove useful in planning for future blackouts or any disaster that may broadly impact the infrastructure of a city.
Author Freese, John; Richmand, Neal J.; Silverman, Robert A.; Braun, James; Kaufman, Bradley J.; Clair, John
DOI 10.1017/S1049023X00004064
Date Nov-Dec
ISSN 1945-1938
Issue 06
Journal Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Keywords Ambulances/utilization; Disaster Planning; *Disasters; Emergency Medical Service Communication Systems/utilization; Emergency Medical Services/organization & administration/*utilization; *Equipment Failure; Heart Arrest/epidemiology; Humans; *Lighting; New York City; Telephone; Time Factors; Urban Health Services/organization & administration/*utilization
Pages 372-378
Title Impact of Citywide Blackout on an Urban Emergency Medical Services System
Volume 21
Year 2006
Bibliographic identifiers
.reference_type 0
_chapter Ch7
_record_number 16302
_uuid 9d80ee92-5d59-4dd5-858f-8818b9d692b4