reference : Suicide and drought in New South Wales, Australia, 1970–2007

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/reference/c22caf01-8728-44cb-af5b-47fac06d1b68
Bibliographic fields
reftype Journal Article
Abstract There is concern in Australia that droughts substantially increase the incidence of suicide in rural populations, particularly among male farmers and their families. We investigated this possibility for the state of New South Wales (NSW), Australia between 1970 and 2007, analyzing data on suicides with a previously established climatic drought index. Using a generalized additive model that controlled for season, region, and long-term suicide trends, we found an increased relative risk of suicide of 15% (95% confidence interval, 8%-22%) for rural males aged 30-49 y when the drought index rose from the first quartile to the third quartile. In contrast, the risk of suicide for rural females aged >30 y declined with increased values of the drought index. We also observed an increased risk of suicide in spring and early summer. In addition there was a smaller association during unusually warm months at any time of year. The spring suicide increase is well documented in nontropical locations, although its cause is unknown. The possible increased risk of suicide during drought in rural Australia warrants public health focus and concern, as does the annual, predictable increase seen each spring and early summer. Suicide is a complex phenomenon with many interacting social, environmental, and biological causal factors. The relationship between drought and suicide is best understood using a holistic framework. Climate change projections suggest increased frequency and severity of droughts in NSW, accompanied and exacerbated by rising temperatures. Elucidating the relationships between drought and mental health will help facilitate adaptation to climate change.
Author Hanigan, I. C.; Butler, C. D.; Kokic, P. N.; Hutchinson, M. F.
DOI 10.1073/pnas.1112965109
Date Aug 28
ISSN 1091-6490
Issue 35
Journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Keywords Adaptation, Psychological; Adult; Agriculture/ statistics & numerical data; Climate Change/statistics & numerical data; Depressive Disorder/epidemiology/psychology; Droughts/ statistics & numerical data; Female; Humans; Incidence; Male; Middle Aged; New South Wales/epidemiology; Rain; Risk Factors; Rural Population/statistics & numerical data; Suicide/psychology/ statistics & numerical data/ trends
Language eng
Notes Hanigan, Ivan C Butler, Colin D Kokic, Philip N Hutchinson, Michael F Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't United States Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Aug 28;109(35):13950-5. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1112965109. Epub 2012 Aug 13.
Pages 13950-13955
Title Suicide and drought in New South Wales, Australia, 1970–2007
Volume 109
Year 2012
Bibliographic identifiers
.reference_type 0
_record_number 4517
_uuid c22caf01-8728-44cb-af5b-47fac06d1b68