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@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix gcis: <http://data.globalchange.gov/gcis.owl#> .
@prefix cito: <http://purl.org/spar/cito/> .
@prefix biro: <http://purl.org/spar/biro/> .

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/extreme-storms/finding/key-finding-9-1>
   dcterms:identifier "key-finding-9-1";
   gcis:findingNumber "9.1"^^xsd:string;
   gcis:findingStatement "Human activities have contributed substantially to observed ocean–atmosphere variability in the Atlantic Ocean (<em>medium confidence</em>), and these changes have contributed to the observed upward trend in North Atlantic hurricane activity since the 1970s (<em>medium confidence</em>)."^^xsd:string;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/extreme-storms>;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report>;

## Properties of the finding:
   gcis:findingProcess "The key message and supporting text summarizes extensive evidence documented in the climate science peer-reviewed literature. The uncertainties and points of consensus that were described in the NCA3 and IPCC assessments have continued."^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:descriptionOfEvidenceBase "The Key Finding and supporting text summarizes extensive evidence documented in the climate science literature and is similar to statements made in previous national (NCA3) and international assessments. Data limitations are documented in Kossin et al. 2013 and references therein. Contributions of natural and anthropogenic factors in observed multidecadal variability are quantified in Carslaw et al. 2013; Zhang et al. 2013; Tung and Zhou 2013; Mann et al. 2014; Stevens 2015; Sobel et al. 2016; Walsh et al. 2015."^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:assessmentOfConfidenceBasedOnEvidence "Confidence in this finding is rated as <em>medium</em>. Although the range of estimates of natural versus anthropogenic contributions in the literature is fairly broad, virtually all studies identify a measurable, and generally substantial, anthropogenic influence. This does constitute a consensus for human contribution to the increases in tropical cyclone activity since 1970."^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:newInformationAndRemainingUncertainties "Key remaining uncertainties are due to known and substantial heterogeneities in the historical tropical cyclone data and lack of robust consensus in determining the precise relative contributions of natural and anthropogenic factors in past variability of the tropical environment."^^xsd:string;

   a gcis:Finding .

## This finding cites the following entities:


<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/extreme-storms/finding/key-finding-9-1>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1073/pnas.1212471110>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/025e3b4f-1901-4a21-9f07-8abc1984fd33>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/extreme-storms/finding/key-finding-9-1>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1126/science.aaf6574>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/3e306a34-4ff7-4273-9012-1eea2fa13100>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/extreme-storms/finding/key-finding-9-1>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1175/jcli-d-14-00656.1>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/4a432e17-c562-43fa-8f90-a6e087fcf4c3>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/extreme-storms/finding/key-finding-9-1>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1175/jas-d-12-0331.1>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/562bc859-63f4-4d69-8818-64a7f545912a>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/extreme-storms/finding/key-finding-9-1>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1038/nature12674>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/97e50b82-dfba-40d7-9fab-3e9d3b75b1d5>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/extreme-storms/finding/key-finding-9-1>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1002/2014GL059233>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/bb77b2a6-9db3-4f38-a5bc-bddb1a61867f>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/extreme-storms/finding/key-finding-9-1>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/dd5b893d-4462-4bb3-9205-67b532919566>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/extreme-storms/finding/key-finding-9-1>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1175/BAMS-D-13-00242.1>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/e56b040c-4d53-400a-b13c-6bc3dbe3f2f4>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/extreme-storms/finding/key-finding-9-1>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/ipcc-ar5-wg1>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/f03117be-ccfe-4f88-b70a-ffd4351b8190>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/extreme-storms/finding/key-finding-9-1>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00262.1>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/f748a8e5-7925-4fb4-a64c-57dd77279670>.