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@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> . @prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> . @prefix gcis: <http://data.globalchange.gov/gcis.owl#> . @prefix cito: <http://purl.org/spar/cito/> . @prefix biro: <http://purl.org/spar/biro/> . <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/extreme-storms/finding/key-finding-9-3> dcterms:identifier "key-finding-9-3"; gcis:findingNumber "9.3"^^xsd:string; gcis:findingStatement "Tornado activity in the United States has become more variable, particularly over the 2000s, with a decrease in the number of days per year with tornadoes and an increase in the number of tornadoes on these days (<em>medium confidence</em>). Confidence in past trends for hail and severe thunderstorm winds, however, is <em>low</em>. Climate models consistently project environmental changes that would putatively support an increase in the frequency and intensity of severe thunderstorms (a category that combines tornadoes, hail, and winds), especially over regions that are currently prone to these hazards, but confidence in the details of this projected increase is <em>low</em>."^^xsd:string; gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/extreme-storms>; gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report>; ## Properties of the finding: gcis:findingProcess "With an established understanding of the data biases, careful analysis provides useful information about past changes in severe thunderstorm and tornado activity. This information suggests that tornado variability has increased in the 2000s, with a concurrent decrease in the number of days per year experiencing tornadoes and an increase in the number of tornadoes on these days. Similarly, the development of novel applications of climate models provides information about possible future severe storm and tornado activity, and although confidence in these projections is low, they do suggest that the projected environments are at least consistent with environments that would putatively support an increase in frequency and intensity of severe thunderstorms."^^xsd:string; gcis:descriptionOfEvidenceBase "Evidence for the first and second statement comes from the U.S. database of tornado reports. There are well known biases in this database, but application of an intensity threshold [greater than or equal to a rating of 1 on the (Enhanced) Fujita scale], and the quantification of tornado activity in terms of tornado days instead of raw numbers of reports are thought to reduce these biases. It is not known at this time whether the variability and trends are necessarily due to climate change. <br><br> The third statement is based on projections from a wide range of climate models, including GCMs and RCMs, run over the past 10 years (e.g., see the review by Brooks 2013). The evidence is derived from an “environmental-proxy” approach, which herein means that severe thunderstorm occurrence is related to the occurrence of two key environmental parameters: CAPE and vertical wind shear. A limitation of this approach is the assumption that the thunderstorm will necessarily form and then realize its environmental potential. This assumption is indeed violated, albeit at levels that vary by region and season."^^xsd:string; gcis:assessmentOfConfidenceBasedOnEvidence "<em>Medium</em>: That the variability in tornado activity has increased. <br /> <em>Medium</em>: That the severe-thunderstorm environmental conditions will change with a changing climate, but<br /> <em>Low</em>: on the precise (geographical and seasonal) realization of the environmental conditions as actual severe thunderstorms."^^xsd:string; gcis:newInformationAndRemainingUncertainties "Regarding the first and second statements, there is still some uncertainty in the database, even when the data are filtered. The major uncertainty in the third statement equates to the aforementioned limitation (that is, the thunderstorm will necessarily form and then realize its environmental potential)."^^xsd:string; a gcis:Finding . ## This finding cites the following entities: <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/extreme-storms/finding/key-finding-9-3> cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1016/j.atmosres.2012.04.002>; biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/4c547264-1f94-4605-a63f-38ca4207f4b5>. <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/extreme-storms/finding/key-finding-9-3> prov:wasDerivedFrom <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/front-matter/figure/confidence---likelihood>.