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@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix gcis: <http://data.globalchange.gov/gcis.owl#> .
@prefix cito: <http://purl.org/spar/cito/> .
@prefix biro: <http://purl.org/spar/biro/> .

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/extreme-storms/finding/key-finding-9-5>
   dcterms:identifier "key-finding-9-5";
   gcis:findingNumber "9.5"^^xsd:string;
   gcis:findingStatement "The frequency and severity of landfalling “atmospheric rivers” on the U.S. West Coast (narrow streams of moisture that account for 30%–40% of the typical snowpack and annual precipitation in the region and are associated with severe flooding events) will increase as a result of increasing evaporation and resulting higher atmospheric water vapor that occurs with increasing temperature (<em>medium confidence</em>)."^^xsd:string;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/extreme-storms>;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report>;

## Properties of the finding:
   gcis:findingProcess "Increases in atmospheric river frequency and intensity are expected along the U.S. West Coast, leading to the likelihood of more frequent flooding conditions, with uncertainties remaining in the details of the spatial structure of theses along the coast (for example, northern vs. southern California)."^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:descriptionOfEvidenceBase "The Key Finding and supporting text summarizes evidence documented in the climate science literature. <br><br> Evidence for the expectation of an increase in the frequency and severity of landfalling atmospheric rivers on the U.S. West Coast comes from the CMIP-based climate change projection studies of Dettinger et al. 2011; Warner et al. 2015; Payne and Magnusdottir 2015; Gao et al. 2015; Radić et al. 2015; and Hagos et al. 2016. The close connection between atmospheric rivers and water availability and flooding is based on the present-day observation studies of Guan et al. 2010; Dettinger et al. 2011; Ralph et al. 2006; Neiman et al. 2011; Moore et al. 2012; and Dettinger 2013."^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:assessmentOfConfidenceBasedOnEvidence "Confidence in this finding is rated as <em>medium</em> based on qualitatively similar projections among different studies."^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:newInformationAndRemainingUncertainties "A modest uncertainty remains in the lack of a supporting detectable anthropogenic signal in the historical data to add further confidence to these projections. However, the overall increase in atmospheric rivers projected/expected is based to a very large degree on the <em>very high confidence</em> that the atmospheric water vapor will increase. Thus, increasing water vapor coupled with little projected change in wind structure/intensity still indicates increases in the frequency/intensity of atmospheric rivers. A modest uncertainty arises in quantifying the expected change at a regional level (for example, northern Oregon vs. southern Oregon) given that there are some changes expected in the position of the jet stream that might influence the degree of increase for different locations along the West Coast. Uncertainty in the projections of the number and intensity of ARs is introduced by uncertainties in the models’ ability to represent ARs and their interactions with climate."^^xsd:string;

   a gcis:Finding .

## This finding cites the following entities:


<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/extreme-storms/finding/key-finding-9-5>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.3390/w3020445>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/04add85e-594b-4d92-83a6-fdce66b73aa4>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/extreme-storms/finding/key-finding-9-5>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1175/JHM-D-14-0080.1>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/40ffbbdf-74f1-4511-b1f1-a2b2a165185e>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/extreme-storms/finding/key-finding-9-5>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1029/2010GL044696>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/59dfa0b2-2e94-4eb9-89fd-3adbbd1d61d4>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/extreme-storms/finding/key-finding-9-5>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1002/2015GL065435>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/60ce531d-0064-4170-8b4d-e63bbb9f0c67>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/extreme-storms/finding/key-finding-9-5>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1175/JHM-D-13-02.1>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/84acc46e-9dcf-43e7-8acc-07f07167ee8e>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/extreme-storms/finding/key-finding-9-5>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1002/2015JD023279>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/8927a54e-415e-4af2-aeb8-665cfe2d17ee>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/extreme-storms/finding/key-finding-9-5>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1029/2006GL026689>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/8caee927-3ee1-4084-a42e-e9487f4ebedf>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/extreme-storms/finding/key-finding-9-5>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1002/2015GL067392>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/a2470cdb-4b8f-4ed6-8c5f-38cd301053a2>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/extreme-storms/finding/key-finding-9-5>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1175/2011JHM1358.1>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/a73e96c6-679f-4f76-a749-571f43601e5c>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/extreme-storms/finding/key-finding-9-5>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1175/MWR-D-11-00126.1>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/ad8a08da-1ddc-452c-ac17-a5208fa4fe09>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/extreme-storms/finding/key-finding-9-5>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1002/2015JD023586>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/d13ddcaa-9080-4fab-9514-c45365ed3740>.



<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/extreme-storms/finding/key-finding-9-5>
   prov:wasDerivedFrom <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/front-matter/figure/confidence---likelihood>.