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@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix gcis: <http://data.globalchange.gov/gcis.owl#> .
@prefix cito: <http://purl.org/spar/cito/> .
@prefix biro: <http://purl.org/spar/biro/> .

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/land-cover/finding/key-finding-10-4>
   dcterms:identifier "key-finding-10-4";
   gcis:findingNumber "10.4"^^xsd:string;
   gcis:findingStatement "Recent studies confirm and quantify higher surface temperatures in urban areas than in surrounding rural areas for a number of reasons, including the concentrated release of heat from buildings, vehicles, and industry. In the United States, this urban heat island effect results in daytime temperatures 0.9°–7.2°F (0.5°–4.0°C) higher and nighttime temperatures 1.8°– 4.5°F (1.0°–2.5°C) higher in urban areas, with larger temperature differences in humid regions (primarily in the eastern United States) and in cities with larger and denser populations. The urban heat island effect will strengthen in the future as the structure, spatial extent, and population density of urban areas change and grow (<em>high confidence</em>)."^^xsd:string;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/land-cover>;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report>;

## Properties of the finding:
   gcis:findingProcess "Key Finding 4 is based on simulated and satellite land surface measurements analyzed by Imhoff et al.. Bounoua et al., Shepherd, Seto and Shepherd, Grimmond et al., and Seto et al. provide specific references with regard to how building materials and spatio-temporal patterns of urban settlements influence radiative forcing and feedbacks of urban areas to the climate system."^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:descriptionOfEvidenceBase "Urban interactions with the climate system have been investigated for more than 40 years. The heat gain due to the storage capacity of urban built structures, reduction in local evapotranspiration, and anthropogenically generated heat alter the spatio-temporal pattern of temperature and leads to the well-known urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon. The urban heat island (UHI) effect is correlated with the extent of impervious surfaces, which alter albedo or the saturation of radiation. The urban-rural difference that defines the UHI is greatest for cities built in temperate forest ecosystems. The average temperature increase is 2.9°C, except for urban areas in biomes with arid and semiarid climates."^^xsd:string;
   
   
   gcis:newInformationAndRemainingUncertainties "The largest uncertainties about urban forcings or feedbacks to the climate system are how urban settlements will evolve and how energy consumption and efficiencies, and their interactions with land cover and water, may change from present times."^^xsd:string;

   a gcis:Finding .

## This finding cites the following entities:


<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/land-cover/finding/key-finding-10-4>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/book/d733a480-c42d-4b32-a2ef-8d8b41d4e2ff>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/0c6d6e02-87c6-4fd3-a4c4-399958553e81>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/land-cover/finding/key-finding-10-4>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/book/a01fc975-f434-4e72-8192-da4b9f2ec0fa>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/37e7c46a-a6cd-4a5c-b98d-306af0511114>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/land-cover/finding/key-finding-10-4>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/book/a01fc975-f434-4e72-8192-da4b9f2ec0fa>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/3ed366fd-fda3-43e8-9402-2f5e374f966e>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/land-cover/finding/key-finding-10-4>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/water-energy-land-use>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/aa1fec1f-b5c3-48b8-b17e-ca88da35eb4c>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/land-cover/finding/key-finding-10-4>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1007/s10584-011-0149-y>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/b05850d3-a9d7-4395-8588-5e27531c160a>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/land-cover/finding/key-finding-10-4>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1016/j.rse.2009.10.008>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/c2e4ff74-7a03-40dc-8bbe-e76b51dca729>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/land-cover/finding/key-finding-10-4>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1007/s10584-011-0148-z>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/d6ca431b-0c90-40e6-bb8d-47e5e293198a>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/land-cover/finding/key-finding-10-4>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/book/a01fc975-f434-4e72-8192-da4b9f2ec0fa>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/edc0e699-6b5a-42d4-95a1-c749033c00bf>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/land-cover/finding/key-finding-10-4>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1016/j.cosust.2009.07.012>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/f133a8eb-421f-4dda-b415-b3d74fb6745c>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/land-cover/finding/key-finding-10-4>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1088/1748-9326/10/8/084010>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/f7cd3568-59f5-453d-9187-c4a93f393d3b>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/land-cover/finding/key-finding-10-4>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1126/science.170.3964.1265>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/ff31c479-bfb9-4c80-8ea1-9486048e1abb>.



<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/land-cover/finding/key-finding-10-4>
   prov:wasDerivedFrom <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/front-matter/figure/confidence---likelihood>.