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@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> . @prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> . @prefix gcis: <http://data.globalchange.gov/gcis.owl#> . @prefix cito: <http://purl.org/spar/cito/> . @prefix biro: <http://purl.org/spar/biro/> . <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/precipitation-change/finding/key-finding-7-2> dcterms:identifier "key-finding-7-2"; gcis:findingNumber "7.2"^^xsd:string; gcis:findingStatement "Heavy precipitation events in most parts of the United States have increased in both intensity and frequency since 1901 (<em>high confidence</em>). There are important regional differences in trends, with the largest increases occurring in the northeastern United States (<em>high confidence</em>). In particular, mesoscale convective systems (organized clusters of thunderstorms)—the main mechanism for warm season precipitation in the central part of the United States—have increased in occurrence and precipitation amounts since 1979 (<em>medium confidence</em>)."^^xsd:string; gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/precipitation-change>; gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report>; ## Properties of the finding: gcis:findingProcess "Based on numerous analyses of the observed record in the United States there is <em>high confidence</em> in the observed changes in heavy precipitation events, and <em>medium confidence</em> in observed changes in mesoscale convective systems."^^xsd:string; gcis:descriptionOfEvidenceBase "The key finding and supporting text summarize extensive evidence documented in the climate science peer-reviewed literature. Numerous papers have been written documenting observed changes in heavy precipitation events in the United States, including those cited in the Third National Climate Assessment and in this assessment. Although station-based analyses (e.g., Westra et al. 2013) do not show large numbers of statistically significant station-based trends, area averaging reduces the noise inherent in station-based data and produces robust increasing signals (see Figures 7.2 and 7.3). Evidence of long-term changes in precipitation is based on analysis of daily precipitation observations from the U.S. Cooperative Observer Network (http://www.nws.noaa.gov/om/coop/) and shown in Figures 7.2, 7.3, and 7.4."^^xsd:string; gcis:assessmentOfConfidenceBasedOnEvidence "Based on the evidence and understanding of the issues leading to uncertainties, confidence is <em>high</em> that heavy precipitation events have increased in the United States. Furthermore, confidence is also <em>high</em> that the important regional and seasonal differences in changes documented in the text and in Figures 7.2, 7.3, and 7.4 are robust."^^xsd:string; gcis:newInformationAndRemainingUncertainties "The main source of uncertainty is the sensitivity of observed precipitation trends to the spatial distribution of observing stations and to historical changes in station location, rain gauges, and observing practices. These issues are mitigated somewhat by methods used to produce spatial grids through gridbox averaging."^^xsd:string; a gcis:Finding . ## This finding cites the following entities: <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/precipitation-change/finding/key-finding-7-2> cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00502.1>; biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/e941a5b9-10b7-462b-9042-5760a82fc415>. <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/precipitation-change/finding/key-finding-7-2> prov:wasDerivedFrom <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/front-matter/figure/confidence---likelihood>.