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@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix gcis: <http://data.globalchange.gov/gcis.owl#> .
@prefix cito: <http://purl.org/spar/cito/> .
@prefix biro: <http://purl.org/spar/biro/> .

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/temperature-change/finding/key-finding-6-2>
   dcterms:identifier "key-finding-6-2";
   gcis:findingNumber "6.2"^^xsd:string;
   gcis:findingStatement "There have been marked changes in temperature extremes across the contiguous United States. The frequency of cold waves has decreased since the early 1900s, and the frequency of heat waves has increased since the mid-1960s. The Dust Bowl era of the 1930s remains the peak period for extreme heat. The number of high temperature records set in the past two decades far exceeds the number of low temperature records. (<em>Very high confidence</em>)"^^xsd:string;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/temperature-change>;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report>;

## Properties of the finding:
   gcis:findingProcess "There is <em>very high confidence</em> in observed changes in temperature extremes over the United States based upon the convergence of evidence from multiple data sources, analyses, and assessments."^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:descriptionOfEvidenceBase "The key finding and supporting text summarize extensive evidence documented in the climate science literature. Similar statements about changes have also been made in other reports (e.g., NCA3; SAP 3.3: Weather and Climate Extremes in a Changing Climate; IPCC Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation). <br><br> Evidence for changes in U.S. climate arises from multiple analyses of in situ data using widely published climate extremes indices. For the analyses presented here, the source of in situ data is the Global Historical Climatology Network–Daily dataset, with changes in extremes being assessed using long-term stations with minimal missing data to avoid network-induced variability on the long-term time series. Cold wave frequency was quantified using the Cold Spell Duration Index, heat wave frequency was quantified using the Warm Spell Duration Index, and heat wave intensity were quantified using the Heat Wave Magnitude Index Daily. Station-based index values were averaged into 4° grid boxes, which were then area-averaged into a time series for the contiguous United States. Note that a variety of other threshold and percentile-based indices were also evaluated, with consistent results (e.g., the Dust Bowl was consistently the peak period for extreme heat). Changes in record-setting temperatures were quantified as in Meehl et al. (2016)."^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:assessmentOfConfidenceBasedOnEvidence "<p>\r\n<em>Very high</em>\r\n</p>\r\n<br><strong>Likelihood of Impact: </strong>\r\n</p>\r\n\r\n<p>\r\n<em>Extremely likely</em>\r\n</p></br>"^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:newInformationAndRemainingUncertainties "The primary uncertainties for in situ data relate to historical changes in station location, temperature instrumentation, observing practice, and spatial sampling (particularly the precision of estimates of change in areas and periods with low station density, such as the intermountain West in the early 20th century)."^^xsd:string;

   a gcis:Finding .

## This finding cites the following entities:


<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/temperature-change/finding/key-finding-6-2>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/ipcc-srex>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/089d8050-f4c8-4d07-bc35-25bf61691be3>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/temperature-change/finding/key-finding-6-2>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/ccsp-sap-3_3-2008>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/12d42a98-494b-4cec-bf08-060021c85ec2>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/temperature-change/finding/key-finding-6-2>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1002/2014JD022098>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/546ef0fe-bfae-43ee-969e-5870c581e426>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/temperature-change/finding/key-finding-6-2>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1073/pnas.1606117113>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/72301197-e20a-4328-accb-4276341a25db>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/temperature-change/finding/key-finding-6-2>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1175/JTECH-D-11-00103.1>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/9b433446-b58f-4358-9737-5a6ccc2f6fcf>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/temperature-change/finding/key-finding-6-2>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/dd5b893d-4462-4bb3-9205-67b532919566>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/temperature-change/finding/key-finding-6-2>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1002/wcc.147>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/e6ecbe14-fe1b-46f8-bad5-bde9e4cc658a>.



<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/temperature-change/finding/key-finding-6-2>
   prov:wasDerivedFrom <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-science-special-report/chapter/front-matter/figure/confidence---likelihood>.