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@prefix gcis: <http://data.globalchange.gov/gcis.owl#> .
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@prefix biro: <http://purl.org/spar/biro/> .
@prefix cito: <http://purl.org/spar/cito/> .

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/indicator-arctic-sea-ice-extent-2019>
   dcterms:identifier "indicator-arctic-sea-ice-extent-2019";
   dcterms:title "Indicator: Arctic Sea Ice Extent"^^xsd:string;
   dbpprop:pubYear "2019"^^xsd:gYear;
   gcis:hasURL "http://www.globalchange.gov/browse/indicators/indicator-arctic-sea-ice-extent"^^xsd:anyURI;
   dcterms:description "Key Points:\r\n\r\nThe September minimum sea ice extent in the Arctic has continued to decrease over the past four decades. Some projections suggest that the Arctic will be virtually ice-free during summers by the middle of this century.\r\n\r\n\r\nAbout the Indicator:\r\n\r\nSea ice extent is estimated using daily satellite images to calculate the total ocean area that has an ice concentration of 15% or more. Trends in sea ice extent are calculated from average values measured during the month of September, which is typically when sea ice extent reaches its annual minimum. Minimum sea ice extent in the Arctic has decreased by about 33% since 1979 (the first full year of satellite data). At this rate, some projections suggest that the Arctic will be virtually ice-free during summers by the middle of this century. \r\n\r\nThe melting of sea ice reduces the area of white surface that reflects the sun’s radiation, simultaneously increasing the area of dark ocean surface that absorbs it. This albedo affect results in a cycle of further sea ice melt and more warming of the ocean. Before melting begins, snow-covered sea ice absorbs only about 20% of the solar radiation that reaches it, whereas the ice-free ocean surface absorbs over 90%. A warmer ocean may melt ice from below, or may release heat back into the atmosphere before the ocean refreezes in the winter—leading over time to less sea ice and a warmer climate.\r\n\r\n\r\nWhy It’s Important:\r\n\r\n- As sea ice cover declines and the Arctic atmosphere warms, wind patterns in the northern hemisphere may shift.\r\n- The loss of ice increases the risk of erosion along coastlines and changes the presence of marine species in certain areas, affecting commercial fish stocks and the economies of some coastal towns.\r\n- Decision makers can use this indicator to understand the magnitude and rate of sea ice loss and prepare for the associated impacts on coastlines and commercial industries."^^xsd:string;

## A report can either be a report, assessment, or technical input
   dcterms:type "indicator";

## Frequency of report release:

## Report topic(s):

## Report chapter(s):

## Report figure(s):
   gcis:hasFigure <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/indicator-arctic-sea-ice-extent-2019/figure/indicator-arctic-sea-ice-extent-2019>;

## Report table(s):
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## Report finding(s):

## Region(s):
  
   a gcis:Report, fabio:Report .


<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/indicator-arctic-sea-ice-extent-2019>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nsidc-siindex-2002>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/01343a27-24b3-4993-bfa7-ef11f625ed08>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/indicator-arctic-sea-ice-extent-2019>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1175/1520-0442(2003)016%3C3498:WTITAF%3E2.0.CO;2>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/1e6ca1ad-69b5-4261-9e0d-2bc54577811a>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/indicator-arctic-sea-ice-extent-2019>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1029/2007GL031972>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/58642a08-8914-4236-a2fa-2e3ae3eb0030>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/indicator-arctic-sea-ice-extent-2019>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1175/1520-0477(1993)074%3C0033:RVOSIA%3E2.0.CO;2>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/5b1f62d0-b899-4b18-a171-de32502bdf93>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/indicator-arctic-sea-ice-extent-2019>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/appendix-climate-science-supplement>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/6b45e493-491d-4695-afab-73a960dcc2a4>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/indicator-arctic-sea-ice-extent-2019>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1111/j.1600-0870.2004.00060.x>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/7103c738-a5cd-43ba-b58b-f01df41812dc>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/indicator-arctic-sea-ice-extent-2019>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1029/JD089iD04p05355>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/7dd569a9-508b-4ce2-b7ac-cfc8922de920>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/indicator-arctic-sea-ice-extent-2019>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/bams-state-of-the-climate-2013>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/8de05de3-917a-4fbb-8bb5-a1aa1e104438>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/indicator-arctic-sea-ice-extent-2019>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/epa-430-r-14-004>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/9278877e-7694-412c-bfe7-de5956f67eaa>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/indicator-arctic-sea-ice-extent-2019>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1126/science.1139426>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/a6b1c68b-fa0c-4011-8a76-8fb934f801bb>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/indicator-arctic-sea-ice-extent-2019>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/our-changing-climate>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/b201fa09-ceba-4287-a071-5a52b441fa51>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/indicator-arctic-sea-ice-extent-2019>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1029/2004EO160007>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/d0eff6ca-23d3-402d-b4e4-847aedc1dd1a>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/indicator-arctic-sea-ice-extent-2019>
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   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/f960a52e-3a76-432e-b22c-c92973d1aff8>.



<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/indicator-arctic-sea-ice-extent-2019>
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