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@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix gcis: <http://data.globalchange.gov/gcis.owl#> .
@prefix cito: <http://purl.org/spar/cito/> .
@prefix biro: <http://purl.org/spar/biro/> .

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/alaska/finding/climate-change-affects-alaska-native>
   dcterms:identifier "climate-change-affects-alaska-native";
   gcis:findingNumber "22.5"^^xsd:string;
   gcis:findingStatement "The cumulative effects of climate change in Alaska strongly affect Native communities, which are highly vulnerable to these rapid changes but have a deep cultural history of adapting to change."^^xsd:string;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/alaska>;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3>;

## Properties of the finding:
   gcis:findingProcess "A central component of the assessment process was the Alaska Regional Climate assessment workshop that was held September 12-15, 2012, in Anchorage with approximately 20 attendees; it began the process leading to a foundational Technical Input Report (TIR). The report consists of 148 pages of text, 45 figures, 8 tables, and 27 pages of references. Public and private citizens or institutions were consulted and engaged in its preparation and expert review by the various agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) represented by the 11-member TIR writing team. The key findings of the report were presented at the Alaska Forum on the Environment and in a regularly scheduled, monthly webinar by the Alaska Center for Climate Assessment and Policy, with feedback then incorporated into the report.\r\nThe chapter author team engaged in multiple technical discussions via regular teleconferences. These included careful expert review of the foundational TIR and of approximately 85 additional technical inputs provided by the public, as well as the other published literature and professional judgment. These discussions were followed by expert deliberation of draft key messages by the writing team in a face-to-face meeting before each key message was selected for inclusion in the Report. These discussions were supported by targeted consultation with additional experts by the lead author of each message, and they were based on criteria that help define “key vulnerabilities” (Ch. 26: Decision Support)."^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:descriptionOfEvidenceBase "The key message and supporting chapter text summarize extensive evidence documented in the Alaska Technical Input Report. Technical input reports (85) on a wide range of topics were also received and reviewed as part of the Federal Register Notice solicitation for public input. \r\nEvidence exists in recorded local observational accounts as well as in the peer-reviewed scientific literature of the cumulative effects of climate-related environmental change on Native communities in Alaska; these effects combine with other socioeconomic stressors to strain rural Native communities (Ch. 12: Indigenous Peoples). Increasing attention to impacts of climate change is revealing new aspects, such as impacts to health and hunter safety (for example, Baffrey and Huntington 2010; Brubaker et al. 2011). There is also strong evidence for the cultural adaptive capacity of these communities and peoples over time.\r\n"^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:assessmentOfConfidenceBasedOnEvidence "There is high confidence that cumulative effects of climate change in Alaska strongly affect Native communities, which are highly vulnerable to these rapid changes but have a deep cultural history of adapting to change"^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:newInformationAndRemainingUncertainties "Important new evidence confirmed many of the findings from a prior Alaska assessment (http://nca2009.globalchange.gov/alaska), which informed the 2009 NCA. \r\nThe precise mechanisms by which climate change affects Native communities are poorly understood, especially in the context of rapid social, economic, and cultural change. Present day responses to environmental change are poorly documented. More research is needed on the ways that Alaska Natives respond to current biophysical climate change and to the factors that enable or constrain contemporary adaptation.\r\nAlaska Native communities are already being affected by climate-induced changes in the physical and biological environment, from coastal erosion threatening the existence of some communities, to alterations in hunting, fishing, and gathering practices that undermine the intergenerational transfer of culture, skill, and wisdom. At the same time, these communities have a long record of adaptation and flexibility. Whether such adaptability is sufficient to address the challenges of climate change depends both on the speed of climate-induced changes and on the degree to which Native communities are supported rather than constrained in the adaptive measures they need to make.\r\n"^^xsd:string;

   a gcis:Finding .

## This finding cites the following entities:


<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/alaska/finding/climate-change-affects-alaska-native>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1007/s10584-013-0735-2>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/0a6d16f1-2362-46a1-8bfa-622dc2a43268>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/alaska/finding/climate-change-affects-alaska-native>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.17730/humo.50.4.c288gt2641286g71>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/2e959d54-a5b5-49e2-8b87-eb5d6afb0e5a>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/alaska/finding/climate-change-affects-alaska-native>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/book/2d867ee1-d04d-42bc-9cd6-d4e4913e84f8>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/588b8649-ccfe-4107-b615-477cf05db8d7>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/alaska/finding/climate-change-affects-alaska-native>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/generic/0c44b443-3caa-44fa-982f-97f967d6344b>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/6ca055db-9671-4dbc-9d65-aa72ac9e9510>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/alaska/finding/climate-change-affects-alaska-native>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1139/X10-108>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/6d7cc16a-7168-46d1-b22b-75244d6bc079>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/alaska/finding/climate-change-affects-alaska-native>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgs-alaska-technicalregionreport-circular1379>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/6e174e7d-28f7-4ce4-9141-c378d82b4f53>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/alaska/finding/climate-change-affects-alaska-native>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.3402/gha.v4i0.8445>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/93caee88-a37f-47dc-9b76-4351c6f122f5>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/alaska/finding/climate-change-affects-alaska-native>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/amap-assessment2007>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/a09df4b5-c276-4f3f-a251-c6dfd75cefe7>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/alaska/finding/climate-change-affects-alaska-native>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1007/s10584-006-9064-z>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/c19771cd-e002-4973-ad8f-8ead63eb1d83>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/alaska/finding/climate-change-affects-alaska-native>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/acia-2005>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/c26ea745-0499-488b-abdd-5599688deaaf>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/alaska/finding/climate-change-affects-alaska-native>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/generic/94727599-790b-4fa6-91bf-e9273fd802d0>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/c79a2225-9c80-4a6a-932e-73d4f8c499e4>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/alaska/finding/climate-change-affects-alaska-native>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1016/j.dsr2.2007.08.011>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/d46dee37-df23-4446-98de-f00d606317b6>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/alaska/finding/climate-change-affects-alaska-native>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca2>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/e251f590-177e-4ba6-8ed1-6f68b5e54c8a>.