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@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix gcis: <http://data.globalchange.gov/gcis.owl#> .
@prefix cito: <http://purl.org/spar/cito/> .
@prefix biro: <http://purl.org/spar/biro/> .

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/alaska/finding/ocean-temp-chem-affect-fisheries>
   dcterms:identifier "ocean-temp-chem-affect-fisheries";
   gcis:findingNumber "22.4"^^xsd:string;
   gcis:findingStatement "Current and projected increases in Alaska’s ocean temperatures and changes in ocean chemistry are expected to alter the distribution and productivity of Alaska’s marine fisheries, which lead the U.S. in commercial value."^^xsd:string;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/alaska>;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3>;

## Properties of the finding:
   gcis:findingProcess "A central component of the assessment process was the Alaska Regional Climate assessment workshop that was held September 12-15, 2012, in Anchorage with approximately 20 attendees; it began the process leading to a foundational Technical Input Report (TIR). The report consists of 148 pages of text, 45 figures, 8 tables, and 27 pages of references. Public and private citizens or institutions were consulted and engaged in its preparation and expert review by the various agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) represented by the 11-member TIR writing team. The key findings of the report were presented at the Alaska Forum on the Environment and in a regularly scheduled, monthly webinar by the Alaska Center for Climate Assessment and Policy, with feedback then incorporated into the report.\r\nThe chapter author team engaged in multiple technical discussions via regular teleconferences. These included careful expert review of the foundational TIR and of approximately 85 additional technical inputs provided by the public, as well as the other published literature and professional judgment. These discussions were followed by expert deliberation of draft key messages by the writing team in a face-to-face meeting before each key message was selected for inclusion in the Report. These discussions were supported by targeted consultation with additional experts by the lead author of each message, and they were based on criteria that help define “key vulnerabilities” (Ch. 26: Decision Support)."^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:descriptionOfEvidenceBase "The key message and supporting chapter text summarize extensive evidence documented in the Alaska Technical Input Report. Technical input reports (85) on a wide range of topics were also received and reviewed as part of the Federal Register Notice solicitation for public input. \r\nNumerous peer-reviewed publications describe evidence that ocean temperatures are rising and ocean chemistry, especially pH, is changing. New observational data from buoys and ships document increasing acidity and aragonite under-saturation (that is, the tendency of calcite and aragonite in shells to dissolve) in Alaskan coastal waters.\r\nAccumulating strong evidence suggests that these changes in ocean temperature and chemistry, including pH, will likely affect major Alaska marine fisheries, although the relative importance of these changes and the exact nature of response of each fishery are uncertain.\r\nAlaska’s commercial fisheries account for roughly 50 percent of the United States’ total wild landings. Alaska led all states in both volume and ex-vessel value of commercial fisheries landings in 2009, with a total of 1.84 million metric tons worth $1.3 billion.\r\n"^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:assessmentOfConfidenceBasedOnEvidence "Given the evidence base and remaining uncertainties:\r\nHigh confidence of increased ocean temperatures and changes in chemistry. \r\nMedium confidence that fisheries will be affected.\r\n"^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:newInformationAndRemainingUncertainties "Important new evidence confirmed many of the findings from a prior Alaska assessment (http://nca2009.globalchange.gov/alaska), which informed the 2009 NCA. \r\nThe new evidence included results from improved models and updated observational data. The assessment included insights from stakeholders collected in a series of distributed engagement meetings that confirm the relevance and significance of the key message for local decision-makers. \r\nA key uncertainty is what the actual impacts of rising temperatures and changing ocean chemistry, including an increase in ocean acidification, will be on a broad range of marine biota and ecosystems. More monitoring is needed to document the extent and location of changes. Additional research is needed to assess how those changes will affect the productivity of key fishery resources and their food and prey base.\r\n"^^xsd:string;

   a gcis:Finding .

## This finding cites the following entities:


<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/alaska/finding/ocean-temp-chem-affect-fisheries>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1126/science.1135471>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/215b842d-1f34-40c2-8e0e-04965ad303d6>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/alaska/finding/ocean-temp-chem-affect-fisheries>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/book/64ca6609-9c68-4f91-b499-84f25cf21348>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/34d601bb-7781-4785-bde8-3b10be88994c>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/alaska/finding/ocean-temp-chem-affect-fisheries>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nmfs-f-spo-118>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/4e7a9c25-dc8f-4b57-b72b-adafed7627df>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/alaska/finding/ocean-temp-chem-affect-fisheries>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgs-alaska-technicalregionreport-circular1379>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/6e174e7d-28f7-4ce4-9141-c378d82b4f53>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/alaska/finding/ocean-temp-chem-affect-fisheries>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1890/1051-0761(2003)013%5B0032:ACOIMR%5D2.0.CO;2>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/79042600-c08d-4569-8741-7f00d598cd02>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/alaska/finding/ocean-temp-chem-affect-fisheries>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1146/annurev.marine.010908.163834>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/7ab1d9e1-75a1-48c5-8d85-02258496f919>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/alaska/finding/ocean-temp-chem-affect-fisheries>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1038/nclimate1301>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/8d612e8b-b96e-48db-a8b4-17bcc3550f7d>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/alaska/finding/ocean-temp-chem-affect-fisheries>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1088/1748-9326/4/2/024007>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/b33c6aba-d652-4f20-9809-e0948a06bcfd>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/alaska/finding/ocean-temp-chem-affect-fisheries>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/book/458c01d4-613f-4d0d-b712-9c2c6c781651>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/d8db2d8d-d1d1-4d24-b662-67b26b8ac92b>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/alaska/finding/ocean-temp-chem-affect-fisheries>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca2>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/e251f590-177e-4ba6-8ed1-6f68b5e54c8a>.