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@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix gcis: <http://data.globalchange.gov/gcis.owl#> .
@prefix cito: <http://purl.org/spar/cito/> .
@prefix biro: <http://purl.org/spar/biro/> .

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/biogeochemical-cycles/finding/human-increased-element-levels>
   dcterms:identifier "human-increased-element-levels";
   gcis:findingNumber "15.1"^^xsd:string;
   gcis:findingStatement "Human activities have increased atmospheric carbon dioxide by about 40% over pre-industrial levels and more than doubled the amount of nitrogen available to ecosystems. Similar trends have been observed for phosphorus and other elements, and these changes have major consequences for biogeochemical cycles and climate change."^^xsd:string;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/biogeochemical-cycles>;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3>;

## Properties of the finding:
   gcis:findingProcess "The key messages and supporting text summarize extensive evidence documented in two technical input reports submitted to the NCA: 1) a foundational report supported by the Departments of Energy and Agriculture: Biogeochemical Cycles and Biogenic Greenhouse Gases from North American Terrestrial Ecosystems: A Technical Input Report for the National Climate Assessment, and 2) an external report: The Role of Nitrogen in Climate Change and the Impacts of Nitrogen-Climate Interactions on Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Agriculture, and Human Health in the United States: A Technical Report Submitted to the U.S. National Climate Assessment. The latter report was supported by the International Nitrogen Initiative, a National Science Foundation grant, and the David and Lucille Packard Foundation.  \r\nAuthor meetings and workshops were held regularly for the foundational report, including a workshop at the 2011 Soil Science Society of America meeting. A workshop held in July 2011 at the USGS John Wesley Powell Center for Analysis and Synthesis in Fort Collins, CO, focused on climate-nitrogen actions and was summarized in the second primary source. An additional 15 technical input reports on various topics were also received and reviewed as part of the Federal Register Notice solicitation for public input. \r\nThe entire author team for this chapter conducted its deliberations by teleconference from April to June 2012, with three major meetings resulting in an outline and a set of key messages.  The team came to expert consensus on all of the key messages based on their reading of the technical inputs, other published literature, and professional judgment. Several original key messages were later combined into a broader set of statements while retaining most of the original content of the chapter. Major revisions to the key messages, chapter, and traceable accounts were approved by authors; further minor revisions were consistent with the messages intended by the authors.\r\n"^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:descriptionOfEvidenceBase "The author team evaluated technical input reports (17) on biogeochemical cycles, including the two primary sources. In particular, one report focused on changes in the nitrogen cycle and was comprehensive. Original literature was consulted for changes in other biogeochemical cycles. The foundational report updated several aspects of our understanding of the carbon balance in the United States. \r\nPublications have shown that human activities have altered biogeochemical cycles. A seminal paper comparing increases in the global fluxes of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), sulfur (S), and phosphorous (P) was published in 2000 and was recently updated. Changes observed in the nitrogen cycle show anthropogenic sources to be far greater than natural ones. For phosphorus, the effect of added phosphorus on plants and microbes is well understood. Extensive research shows that increases in CO2 are the strongest human impact forcing climate change, mainly because the concentration of CO2 is so much greater than that of other greenhouse gases."^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:assessmentOfConfidenceBasedOnEvidence "High confidence. Evidence for human inputs of C, N, and P come from academic, government, and industry sources. The data show substantial agreement.\r\nThe likelihood of continued dominance of CO2 over other greenhouse gases as a driver of global climate change is also judged to be high, because its concentration is an order of magnitude higher and its rate of change is well known. "^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:newInformationAndRemainingUncertainties "The sources of C, N, and P are from well-documented processes, such as fossil fuel burning and fertilizer production and application. The flux from some processes is well known, while others have significant remaining uncertainties. \r\nSome new work has synthesized the assessment of global and national CO2 emissions and categorized the major CO2 sources and sinks. Annual updates of CO2 emissions and sink inventories are done by EPA (for example, EPA 2013).  \r\nAdvances in the knowledge of the nitrogen cycle have quantified that human-caused reactive nitrogen inputs are now at least five times greater than natural inputs."^^xsd:string;

   a gcis:Finding .

## This finding cites the following entities:


<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/biogeochemical-cycles/finding/human-increased-element-levels>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/epa-greenhousegasinventory-1990-2011>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/13e4d075-f7bd-4fd4-a41f-a1f0cd93356d>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/biogeochemical-cycles/finding/human-increased-element-levels>
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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/biogeochemical-cycles/finding/human-increased-element-levels>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/epa-sab-11-013>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/346e77a5-93b9-4c37-bd95-d7db44091a4c>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/biogeochemical-cycles/finding/human-increased-element-levels>
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   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/3c440da6-7ee4-4406-aa92-1e779947552c>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/biogeochemical-cycles/finding/human-increased-element-levels>
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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/biogeochemical-cycles/finding/human-increased-element-levels>
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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/biogeochemical-cycles/finding/human-increased-element-levels>
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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/biogeochemical-cycles/finding/human-increased-element-levels>
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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/biogeochemical-cycles/finding/human-increased-element-levels>
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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/biogeochemical-cycles/finding/human-increased-element-levels>
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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/biogeochemical-cycles/finding/human-increased-element-levels>
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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/biogeochemical-cycles/finding/human-increased-element-levels>
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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/biogeochemical-cycles/finding/human-increased-element-levels>
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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/biogeochemical-cycles/finding/human-increased-element-levels>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/epa-greenhousegasinventory-1990-2009>;
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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/biogeochemical-cycles/finding/human-increased-element-levels>
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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/biogeochemical-cycles/finding/human-increased-element-levels>
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