You are viewing /report/nca3/chapter/coastal-zone/finding/coastal-lifelines-vulnerable in Turtle
Alternatives : HTML JSON YAML text N-Triples JSON Triples RDF+XML RDF+JSON Graphviz SVG
Raw
@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix gcis: <http://data.globalchange.gov/gcis.owl#> .
@prefix cito: <http://purl.org/spar/cito/> .
@prefix biro: <http://purl.org/spar/biro/> .

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/coastal-zone/finding/coastal-lifelines-vulnerable>
   dcterms:identifier "coastal-lifelines-vulnerable";
   gcis:findingNumber "25.1"^^xsd:string;
   gcis:findingStatement "Coastal lifelines, such as water supply and energy infrastructure and evacuation routes, are increasingly vulnerable to higher sea levels and storm surges, inland flooding, erosion, and other climate-related changes."^^xsd:string;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/coastal-zone>;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3>;

## Properties of the finding:
   gcis:findingProcess "A central component of the assessment process was a Chapter Lead Authors meeting held in St. Louis, Missouri in April 2012. The key messages were initially developed at this meeting. Key vulnerabilities were operationally defined as those challenges that can fundamentally undermine the functioning of human and natural coastal systems. They arise when these systems are highly exposed and sensitive to climate change and (given present or potential future adaptive capacities) insufficiently prepared or able to respond. The vulnerabilities that the team decided to focus on were informed by ongoing interactions of the author team with coastal managers, planners, and stakeholders, as well as a review of the existing literature. In addition, the author team conducted a thorough review of the technical input reports (TIR) and associated literature, including the coastal zone foundational TIR prepared for the National Climate Assessment (NCA). Chapter development was supported by numerous chapter author technical discussions via teleconference from April to June 2012."^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:descriptionOfEvidenceBase "Coastal infrastructure is defined here to include buildings, roads, railroads, airports, port facilities, subways, tunnels, bridges, water supply systems, wells, sewer lines, pump stations, wastewater treatment plants, water storage and drainage systems, port facilities, energy production and transmission facilities on land and offshore, flood protection systems such as levees and seawalls, and telecommunication equipment. Lifelines are understood in the common usage of that term in hazards management.  The key message and supporting text summarize extensive evidence documented in the coastal zone technical input report as well as a technical input report on infrastructure. Technical input reports (68) on a wide range of topics were also received and reviewed as part of the Federal Register Notice solicitation for public input, along with the extant scientific literature. Additional evidence is provided in other chapters on hurricanes (Ch. 2: Our Changing Climate, Key Message 8), global sea level rise (Ch. 2: Our Changing Climate, Key Message 10), water supply vulnerabilities (Ch. 3: Water); key coastal transportation vulnerabilities (Ch. 5: Transportation), and energy-related infrastructure (Ch. 4: Energy). This key message focuses mainly on water supply and energy infrastructure and evacuation routes, as these constitute critical lifelines.  The evidence base for exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity to higher sea levels and storm surges is very strong, both from empirical observation and historical experience and from studies projecting future impacts on critical coastal infrastructure. There are numerous publications concerning the effects of sea level rise and storm surges on roadways, coastal bridges, and supply of refined products. The information on roadways came from various reports (for example, DOT 2012; Transportation Research Board 2011) and other publications (for example, State of Louisiana 2012). The impact on coastal bridges is documented in U.S. Department of Transportation reports. A number of publications explored the impacts on supply of refined oil-based products such as gasoline.  The evidence base is moderate for the interaction of inland and coastal flooding. There are many and recent publications concerning impacts to wastewater treatment plants and drainage systems. These impacts lead to increased risk of urban flooding and disruption of essential services to urban residents."^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:assessmentOfConfidenceBasedOnEvidence "Given the evidence base, the large quantity of infrastructure (water-related infrastructure, energy infrastructure, and the 60,000 miles of coastal roads) in the U.S. coastal zone, and the directional trend at least of sea level rise and runoff associated with heavy precipitation events, we have very high confidence that these types of infrastructure in the coastal zone are increasingly vulnerable"^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:newInformationAndRemainingUncertainties "The projected rate of sea level rise (SLR) is fully accounted for through the use of common scenarios. We note, however, that there is currently limited impacts literature yet that uses the lowest or highest 2100 scenario and none that specifically use the broader range of SLR (0.2 to 2 meters, or 0.7 to 6.6 feet, by 2100)  and NCA land-use scenarios (60% to 164% increase in urban and suburban land area).  The severity and frequency of storm damage in any given location cannot yet be fully accounted for due to uncertainties in projecting future extratropical and tropical storm frequency, intensity, and changes in storm tracks for different regions (Ch. 2: Our Changing Climate).  The timely implementation and efficacy of adaptation measures, including planned retreat, in mitigating damages is accounted for in the underlying literature (for example, by varying assumptions about the timing of implementation of adaptation measures and the type of adaptation measures) such as hard protection, elevation, relocation, or protection through wetlands and dunes in front of the infrastructure in question) (for example, Aerts and Botzen 2012; Biging et al. 2012; Bloetscher et al. 2011; Heberger et al. 2009; Irish et al. 2010; Kirshen et al. 2011). However, such studies can only test the sensitivity of conclusions to these assumptions; they do not allow statements about what is occurring on the ground.  Additional uncertainties arise from the confluence of climate change impacts from the inland and ocean side, which have yet to be studied in an integrated fashion across different coastal regions of the United States."^^xsd:string;

   a gcis:Finding .

## This finding cites the following entities:


<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/coastal-zone/finding/coastal-lifelines-vulnerable>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/epa-600-r-08-076f>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/05a757a8-7972-4f33-aed8-424b0afb8fc4>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/coastal-zone/finding/coastal-lifelines-vulnerable>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/cec-500-2012-040>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/0fece8dd-1233-4ec3-8958-2944a5b3c967>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/coastal-zone/finding/coastal-lifelines-vulnerable>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1007/s10584-011-0024-x>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/15fe2aef-6d15-4ea6-a62c-ebb2563d8b4e>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/coastal-zone/finding/coastal-lifelines-vulnerable>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2010.08.001>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/18d757e5-9494-4ca8-9dfe-5cc335c8ffb7>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/coastal-zone/finding/coastal-lifelines-vulnerable>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nycpanelonclimch-cri2009>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/207ddc2e-343a-4017-83e1-9ac70c02f723>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/coastal-zone/finding/coastal-lifelines-vulnerable>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1504/IJCIS.2008.016092>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/250d03a2-c6b7-45fb-9585-4e9385aefe2f>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/coastal-zone/finding/coastal-lifelines-vulnerable>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/noaasarp-2011>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/3836ed81-4502-4b89-9b27-9fe9ee2d6c42>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/coastal-zone/finding/coastal-lifelines-vulnerable>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.2112/JCOASTRES-D-10-00129.1>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/388a539b-7eb8-48a5-be34-6568a5af8682>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/coastal-zone/finding/coastal-lifelines-vulnerable>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/ipcc-srex>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/5138b20c-7049-433e-a1ec-24417cccd3c2>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/coastal-zone/finding/coastal-lifelines-vulnerable>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/wrf-webreport4228>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/5a9e11bc-fdae-474b-a2ad-fe51fa2bb95a>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/coastal-zone/finding/coastal-lifelines-vulnerable>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/dot-ostp-33-2012>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/6b4d3283-49dc-4b8d-830b-aa554e37279f>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/coastal-zone/finding/coastal-lifelines-vulnerable>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/2012-pirca>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/6fd7abfe-17d7-49a9-bc90-bf85fa4041d3>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/coastal-zone/finding/coastal-lifelines-vulnerable>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/trb-ar-2011>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/721cfdbb-b8e5-424e-b09d-8ce0b059a431>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/coastal-zone/finding/coastal-lifelines-vulnerable>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.2175/193864711802836319>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/73596de6-c45e-4dea-b441-fa967b6f658e>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/coastal-zone/finding/coastal-lifelines-vulnerable>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1007/s10584-010-0002-8>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/78fbf40c-2639-480a-8410-5be748750f2b>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/coastal-zone/finding/coastal-lifelines-vulnerable>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1504/IJCIS.2011.042994>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/85805796-ffa7-4396-bdf4-10a0a3cab671>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/coastal-zone/finding/coastal-lifelines-vulnerable>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgs-openfilereport-2012-1025>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/8ce65ffc-cdb9-4022-98de-de8bbb141837>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/coastal-zone/finding/coastal-lifelines-vulnerable>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/book/a9402ba6-1543-40b5-8a61-6bc556ae8375>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/996f4616-6ae6-4248-9351-f28215ac556c>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/coastal-zone/finding/coastal-lifelines-vulnerable>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/werf-reportcc2r08-2009>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/a13ad871-f5b6-430f-b2d3-cfc1b161e418>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/coastal-zone/finding/coastal-lifelines-vulnerable>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/generic/5558c7f1-df6b-4d3e-9895-9472a186ae73>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/a5fd7659-3d17-445f-a924-44a659bb11d1>.