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@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix gcis: <http://data.globalchange.gov/gcis.owl#> .
@prefix cito: <http://purl.org/spar/cito/> .
@prefix biro: <http://purl.org/spar/biro/> .

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/ecosystems/finding/ecosystem-whole-system-management>
   dcterms:identifier "ecosystem-whole-system-management";
   gcis:findingNumber "8.5"^^xsd:string;
   gcis:findingStatement "Whole system management is often more effective than focusing on one species at a time, and can help reduce the harm to wildlife, natural assets, and human well-being that climate disruption might cause."^^xsd:string;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/ecosystems>;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3>;

## Properties of the finding:
   gcis:findingProcess "The key messages and supporting chapter text summarize extensive evidence documented in the Ecosystems Technical Input Report, Impacts of Climate Change on Biodiversity, Ecosystems, and Ecosystem Services: Technical Input to the 2013 National Climate Assessment. This foundational report evolved from a technical workshop held at the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation in Palo Alto, CA, in January 2012 and attended by approximately 65 scientists. Technical inputs (127) on a wide range of topics related to ecosystems were also received and reviewed as part of the Federal Register Notice solicitation for public input."^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:descriptionOfEvidenceBase "Adaptation planning for conservation at federal  and state levels, is focused on cooperation between scientists and managers. Development of ecosystem-based whole system management utilizes concepts about “biodiversity and ecosystem services to help people adapt to climate change.” An example is the use of coastal wetlands or mangroves rather than built infrastructure like seawalls or levees to protect coastal regions from storms (Chapter 25: Coasts)."^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:assessmentOfConfidenceBasedOnEvidence "Given the evidence and remaining uncertainties, there is very high confidence that ecosystem-based management approaches are increasingly prevalent, and provide options for reducing the harm to biodiversity, ecosystems, and the services they provide to society. The effectiveness of these actions is much less certain, however."^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:newInformationAndRemainingUncertainties "Adaptation strategies to protect biodiversity include: 1) habitat manipulations, 2) conserving populations with higher genetic diversity or more plastic behaviors or morphologies, 3) changing seed sources for re-planting to introduce species or ecotypes that are better suited for future climates, 4) managed relocation (sometimes referred to as assisted migration) to help move species and populations from current locations to those areas expected to become more suitable in the future, and 5) ex-situ conservation such as seed banking and captive breeding. Alternative approaches focus on identifying and protecting features that are important for biodiversity and are projected to be less altered by climate change. The idea is to conserve the physical conditions that contribute to high levels of biodiversity so that species and populations can find suitable areas in the future."^^xsd:string;

   a gcis:Finding .

## This finding cites the following entities:


<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/ecosystems/finding/ecosystem-whole-system-management>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usfs-pnw-gtr-855>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/007a7014-723e-4ceb-a395-5c986b1bf884>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/ecosystems/finding/ecosystem-whole-system-management>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/webpage/cf5befdc-d73e-4fff-9d5b-1060bcc26e95>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/06d1db55-4d78-4a7c-aecc-8852c5a03811>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/ecosystems/finding/ecosystem-whole-system-management>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/climate-change-scenario-planning-a-tool-for-managing-parks-into-uncertain-futures>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/076ae54f-40da-494d-a736-a4ef99e2cff8>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/ecosystems/finding/ecosystem-whole-system-management>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2012.01954.x>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/0f6a0b9d-89f1-47d6-b508-5469c4134c43>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/ecosystems/finding/ecosystem-whole-system-management>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1371/journal.pone.0011554>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/181421a5-ba0c-495c-8982-0de79b79b654>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/ecosystems/finding/ecosystem-whole-system-management>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/workshop-approach-for-developing-climate-change-adaptation-strategies-and-actions-for-natural-resource-management-agencies-in-the-united-states>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/32610191-4861-48b9-ab67-475b2c319d06>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/ecosystems/finding/ecosystem-whole-system-management>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1007/s11027-009-9193-6>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/397213e4-f0f8-40bf-865b-9e041d793a0f>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/ecosystems/finding/ecosystem-whole-system-management>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1890/ES11-00115.1>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/41f4e895-d87d-427a-a9d9-e1d411fc838d>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/ecosystems/finding/ecosystem-whole-system-management>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1007/s10531-010-9954-2>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/476c703b-59a2-49b1-9f58-06fe7d48afe1>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/ecosystems/finding/ecosystem-whole-system-management>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/federal-actions-climate-resilient-nation>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/50bb7a05-57dc-4bd5-bc8e-706ab08cfc6d>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/ecosystems/finding/ecosystem-whole-system-management>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca-impactsclimchbiodiv-2012>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/7406884d-2302-4644-aa50-12ed8baf4fd7>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/ecosystems/finding/ecosystem-whole-system-management>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/cbd-technical-series-50>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/74efef7b-7f6b-4d70-94ec-68289932198e>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/ecosystems/finding/ecosystem-whole-system-management>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1007/s10531-012-0269-3>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/755532b1-d3a3-487f-8832-59e3ac8666f8>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/ecosystems/finding/ecosystem-whole-system-management>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1111/j.1523-1739.1988.tb00202.x>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/786410d9-a239-42cf-95b3-11e113b394e7>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/ecosystems/finding/ecosystem-whole-system-management>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/worldbank-econ-2010>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/8488261c-b80b-4bd9-9efe-838a79eabd8b>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/ecosystems/finding/ecosystem-whole-system-management>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2009.01422.x>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/87b2d33e-c89a-4924-b8f1-6f483b34d598>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/ecosystems/finding/ecosystem-whole-system-management>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.2112/SI54-004.1>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/9121eb05-d386-4d43-b1cf-b8562be1aeac>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/ecosystems/finding/ecosystem-whole-system-management>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/iucn-ecosystem-adaptation-2009>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/a73f8aa0-6043-4e46-9937-7ee2452dc7f6>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/ecosystems/finding/ecosystem-whole-system-management>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/epa-600-r-09-011>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/c5f68784-215b-4edd-8d34-fee7843e7a1f>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/ecosystems/finding/ecosystem-whole-system-management>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/webpage/f4ff56d3-0c7a-42ec-87a4-d09db34c93d0>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/cd9323bc-3eba-4d88-a26f-632a9605d90d>.