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@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix gcis: <http://data.globalchange.gov/gcis.owl#> .
@prefix cito: <http://purl.org/spar/cito/> .
@prefix biro: <http://purl.org/spar/biro/> .

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/human-health/finding/existing-health-threats-amplified>
   dcterms:identifier "existing-health-threats-amplified";
   gcis:findingNumber "9.2"^^xsd:string;
   gcis:findingStatement "Climate change will, absent other changes, amplify some of the existing health threats the nation now faces. Certain people and communities are especially vulnerable, including children, the elderly, the sick, the poor, and some communities of color."^^xsd:string;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/human-health>;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3>;

## Properties of the finding:
   gcis:findingProcess "The key messages were developed during technical discussions and expert deliberation at a two-day meeting of the eight chapter Lead Authors, plus Susan Hassol and Daniel Glick, held in Boulder, Colorado May 8-9, 2012; through multiple technical discussions via six teleconferences from January through June 2012, and an author team call to finalize the Traceable Account draft language on Oct 12, 2012; and through other various communications on points of detail and issues of expert judgment in the interim. The author team also engaged in targeted consultations during multiple exchanges with Contributing Authors, who provided additional expertise on subsets of the key message. These discussions were held after a review of the technical inputs and associated literature pertaining to human health, including a literature review, workshop reports for the Northwest and Southeast United States, and additional technical inputs on a variety of topics. "^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:descriptionOfEvidenceBase "The key message and supporting text summarizes extensive evidence documented in several foundational technical inputs prepared for this chapter, including a literature review and workshop reports for the Northwest and Southeast regions. Nearly 60 additional technical inputs related to human health were received and reviewed as part of the Federal Register Notice solicitation for public input. \r\nCurrent epidemiological evidence on climate-sensitive health outcomes in the U.S. indicates that health impacts will differ substantially by location, pathway of exposure, underlying susceptibility, and adaptive capacity. These disparities in health impacts will largely result from differences in the distribution of individual attributes in a population that confers vulnerability (age, socioeconomic status, and race), attributes of place that reduce or amplify exposure (floodplain, coastal zone, and urban heat island), and the resilience of critical public health infrastructure.  \r\nAmplification of existing health threats: The effects of extreme heat and heat waves, projected worsening air pollution and asthma, extreme rainfall and flooding, and displacement and injuries associated with extreme weather events, fueled by climate change, are already substantial public health issues. Trends projected under a changing climate are projected to exacerbate these health effects in the future. \r\nChildren: The effects of climate change increase vulnerability of children to extreme heat, and increased health damage (morbidity, mortality) resulting from heat waves has been well documented. Extreme heat also causes more pediatric deaths, and more emergency room visits and hospital admissions. Adverse effects from increased heavy precipitation can lead to more pediatric deaths, waterborne diseases, and illness. \r\nThe elderly: Heat stress is especially damaging to the health of older people, as are climate-sensitive increases in air pollution.\r\nThe sick: People and communities lacking the resources to adapt or to enhance mobility and escape health-sensitive situations are at relatively high risk.\r\nThe poor: People and communities lacking the resources to adapt or to move and escape health-sensitive situations are at relatively high risk.\r\nSome communities of color: There are racial disparities in climate-sensitive exposures to extreme heat in urban areas, and in access to means of adaptation – for example air conditioning use. There are also racial disparities in withstanding, and recovering from, extreme weather events. \r\nClimate change will disproportionately impact low-income communities and some communities of color, raising environmental justice concerns. Existing health disparities and other inequities increase vulnerability. For example, Hurricane Katrina demonstrated how vulnerable these populations were to extreme weather events because many low-income and of-color New Orleans residents were killed, injured, or had difficulty evacuating and recovering from the storm. Other climate change related issues that have an equity component include heat waves and air quality.\r\n"^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:assessmentOfConfidenceBasedOnEvidence "Given the evidence base and remaining uncertainties, confidence that climate change will amplify existing health threats: Very High.\r\nAmong those especially vulnerable are:\r\nChildren: Very High. \r\nThe elderly: Very High.\r\nThe sick: Very High.\r\nThe poor: Very High.\r\n"^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:newInformationAndRemainingUncertainties "Important new evidence confirmed findings from a prior literature review.\r\nThe potential for specific climate-vulnerable communities to experience highly harmful health effects is not entirely clear in specific regions and on specific time frames due to uncertainties in rates of adaptation and uncertainties about the outcome of public health interventions currently being implemented that aim to address underlying health disparities and determinants of health. The public health community has not routinely conducted evaluations of the overall success of adaptation interventions or of particular elements of those interventions.\r\n"^^xsd:string;

   a gcis:Finding .

## This finding cites the following entities:


<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/human-health/finding/existing-health-threats-amplified>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1080/15287390801997625>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/0029eba2-f4a7-4d12-bd24-4f677da92109>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/human-health/finding/existing-health-threats-amplified>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1089/env.2009.0032>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/03a60a7d-e54d-4f82-bcc4-aec34d63b0ac>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/human-health/finding/existing-health-threats-amplified>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/ipcc-srex>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/089d8050-f4c8-4d07-bc35-25bf61691be3>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/human-health/finding/existing-health-threats-amplified>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.2500/aap.2009.30.3229>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/0b3b0345-837c-4be4-9e68-6dd8d6ea5e51>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/human-health/finding/existing-health-threats-amplified>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.5402/2011/537194>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/0e8764f8-e7e0-44b4-89cc-218100c5049f>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/human-health/finding/existing-health-threats-amplified>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.104.517110>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/19c0ac33-832f-402b-a027-201bf0faf336>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/human-health/finding/existing-health-threats-amplified>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1016/j.healthplace.2010.12.005>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/1aca1900-c64c-4624-a696-3aab59ba6673>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/human-health/finding/existing-health-threats-amplified>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1016/j.envres.2009.03.010>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/22344c1d-cee2-4f9d-91c0-60ceb6e9ca57>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/human-health/finding/existing-health-threats-amplified>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1093/aje/kwm044>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/27dc34c7-af90-41db-9e6d-7cc5bf34e6cf>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/human-health/finding/existing-health-threats-amplified>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1186/1476-069X-8-40>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/28b8aa29-bfe6-4d88-b73f-fe736f5042b6>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/human-health/finding/existing-health-threats-amplified>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1016/j.jglr.2009.12.009>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/315edcf2-107b-449d-b694-5d5a3c87ebbb>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/human-health/finding/existing-health-threats-amplified>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1111/j.1600-0668.2007.00478.x>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/3c45d8a9-1195-4769-84da-bbb7d35a86d7>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/human-health/finding/existing-health-threats-amplified>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.2105/AJPH.2007.119362>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/3f2402c5-22aa-4f75-861e-f6aca127cd1f>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/human-health/finding/existing-health-threats-amplified>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca-health-ti-2012>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/5836b5e1-c6fa-4eaa-b453-93304c3021d5>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/human-health/finding/existing-health-threats-amplified>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.07.030>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/5f587662-8664-420f-8045-196e2bb7ec0d>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/human-health/finding/existing-health-threats-amplified>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/russellsagefoundation-in-the-wake-of-the-storm-2006>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/60c1199f-692f-4e77-bd9b-15ae136141e7>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/human-health/finding/existing-health-threats-amplified>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1007/s10584-010-9852-3>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/6168163c-2f61-4593-810e-fe389a8f7834>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/human-health/finding/existing-health-threats-amplified>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1016/j.amepre.2008.08.017>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/6177fcba-e6ac-48c8-aed7-ef5eed7b1b9c>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/human-health/finding/existing-health-threats-amplified>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1073/pnas.1113070109>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/71cceabc-45d8-4b40-bb94-30755e6db7d3>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/human-health/finding/existing-health-threats-amplified>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1378/chest.108.5.1380>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/79a37f77-26ef-4bdb-b5d4-2f7f2de1e288>.