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@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix gcis: <http://data.globalchange.gov/gcis.owl#> .
@prefix cito: <http://purl.org/spar/cito/> .
@prefix biro: <http://purl.org/spar/biro/> .

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/midwest/finding/exacerbation-of-risks-to-great-lakes>
   dcterms:identifier "exacerbation-of-risks-to-great-lakes";
   gcis:findingNumber "18.6"^^xsd:string;
   gcis:findingStatement "Climate change will exacerbate a range of risks to the Great Lakes, including changes in the range and distribution of certain fish species, increased invasive species and harmful blooms of algae, and declining beach health. Ice cover declines will lengthen the commercial navigation season."^^xsd:string;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/midwest>;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3>;

## Properties of the finding:
   gcis:findingProcess "The assessment process for the Midwest Region began with a workshop was that was held July 25, 2011, in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Ten participants discussed the scope and authors for a foundational Technical Input Report (TIR) report entitled “Midwest Technical Input Report.” The report, which consisted of nearly 240 pages of text organized into 13 chapters, was assembled by 23 authors representing governmental agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), tribes, and other entities. \r\nThe Chapter Author Team engaged in multiple technical discussions via teleconferences that permitted a careful review of the foundational TIR and of approximately 45 additional technical inputs provided by the public, as well as the other published literature, and professional judgment. The Chapter Author Team convened teleconferences and exchanged extensive emails to define the scope of the chapter for their expert deliberation of input materials and to generate the chapter text and figures. Each expert drafted key messages, initial text and figure drafts and traceable accounts that pertained to their individual fields of expertise. These materials were then extensively discussed by the Author Team and were approved by the Chapter Team members. "^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:descriptionOfEvidenceBase "The key message and supporting text summarize extensive evidence documented in the Technical Input Report. Technical inputs on a wide range of topics were also received and reviewed as part of the Federal Register Notice solicitation for public input.  Evidence for changes in ice cover due to increased temperatures across the U.S. are discussed in Chapter 2 (Our Changing Climate, Key Message 11) and its Traceable Accounts. Specific details for the Midwest are detailed in “Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment” with its references. A recent book also contains chapters detailing the most current evidence for the region.  Altered fish communities: Warmer lakes and streams will certainly provide more habitat for warmwater species as conditions in northern reaches of the basin become more suitable for warmwater fish and as lakes and streams are vacated by cool- and coldwater species. Habitat for coldwater fish, though not expected to disappear, will shrink substantially, though it could also expand in some areas, such as Lake Superior. Whether climate change expands the range of any type of fish is dependent on the availability of forage fish, as higher temperatures also necessitate greater food intake. Increased abundances of invasive species: As climate change alters water temperatures, habitat, and fish communities, conditions that once were barriers to alien species become conduits for establishment and spread. This migration will alter drastically the fish communities of the Great Lakes basin. Climate change is also projected to heighten the impact of invasive species already present in the Great Lakes basin. Warmer winter conditions, for instance, have the potential to benefit alewife, round gobies, ruffe, sea lamprey, rainbow smelt, and other non-native species. These species have spread rapidly throughout the basin and have already inflicted significant ecological and economic harm.   Declining beach health and harmful algal blooms: Extreme events increase runoff, adding sediments, pollutants, and nutrients to the Great Lakes. The Midwest has experienced rising trends in precipitation and runoff. Agricultural runoff, in combination with increased water temperatures, has caused considerable non-point source pollution problems in recent years, with increased phosphorus and nitrogen loadings from farms contributing to more frequent and prolonged occurrences of anoxic “dead zones” and harmful, dense algae growth for long periods. Stormwater runoff that overloads urban sewer systems during extreme events adds to increased levels of toxic substances, sewage, and bacteria in the Great Lakes, affecting water quality, beach health, and human well-being. Increased storm events caused by climate change will lead to an increase in combined sewer overflows.  Decreased ice cover: Increasingly mild winters have shortened the time between when a lake freezes and when it thaws. Scientists have documented a relatively constant decrease in Great Lakes ice cover since the 1970s, particularly for Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, and Ontario. The loss of ice cover on the Great Lakes has both ecological and economic implications. Ice serves to protect shorelines and habitat from storms and wave power. Less ice—coupled with more frequent and intense storms—leaves shores vulnerable to erosion and flooding and could harm property and fish habitat. Water levels: The 2009 NCA included predictions of a significant drop in Great Lakes levels by the end of the century, based on methods of linking climate models to hydrologic models. These methods have been significantly improved by fully coupling the hydrologic cycle among land, lake, and atmosphere. Without accounting for that cycle of interactions, a study concluded that increases in precipitation would be negated by increases in winter evaporation from less ice cover and by increases in summer evaporation and evapotranspiration from warmer air temperatures, under a scenario of continued increases in global emissions (SRES A2 scenario). Declines of 8 inches to 2 feet are projected by the end of this century, depending on the specific lake in question. A recent comprehensive assessment, however, has concluded that with a continuation of current rising emissions trends (A2), the lakes will experience a slight decrease or even a rise in water levels; the difference from earlier studies is because earlier studies tended to overstress the amount of evapotranspiration expected to occur. The range of potential future lake levels remains large and includes the earlier projected decline. Overall, however, scientists project an increase in precipitation in the Great Lakes region (with extreme events projected to contribute to this increase), which will contribute to maintenance of or an increase in Great Lakes water levels. However, water level changes are not predicted to be uniform throughout the basin. Shipping: Ice cover is expected to decrease dramatically by the end of the century, possibly lengthening the shipping season and, thus, facilitating more shipping activity. Current science suggests water levels in the Great Lakes are projected to fall slightly or might even rise over the short run. However, by causing even a small drop in water levels, climate change could make the costs of shipping increase substantially. For instance, for every inch of draft a 1000-foot ship gives up, its capacity is reduced by 270 tons. Lightened loads today already add about $200,000 in costs to each voyage. "^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:assessmentOfConfidenceBasedOnEvidence "Peer-reviewed literature about the effects of climate change are in broad agreement that air and surface water temperatures are rising and will continue to do so, that ice cover is declining steadily, and that precipitation and extreme events are on the rise. For large lake ecosystems, these changes have well-documented effects, such as effects on algal production, stratification (change in water temperature with depth), beach health, and fisheries. Key uncertainties exist about Great Lakes water levels and the impact of climate change on fisheries. \r\nA qualitative summary of climate stressors and coastal margin vulnerabilities for the Great Lakes is given in a technical input report. We have high confidence that the sum of these stressors will exceed the risk posed by any individual stressor. However, quantifying the cumulative impacts of those stressors is very challenging. \r\nGiven the evidence and remaining uncertainties, there is very high confidence in this key message, except high confidence for lake levels changing, and high confidence that declines in ice cover will continue to lengthen the commercial navigation season. There is limited information regarding exactly how invasive species may respond to changes in the regional climate, resulting in medium confidence for that part of the key message.\r\n\r\n"^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:newInformationAndRemainingUncertainties "Key issues (uncertainties) are:\r\nWater levels are influenced by the amount of evaporation from decreased ice cover and warmer air temperatures, by evapotranspiration from warmer air temperatures, and by potential increases in inflow from more precipitation. Uncertainties about Great Lakes water levels are high, though most models suggest that the decrease in ice cover will lead to slightly lower water levels, beyond natural fluctuations.\r\nThe spread of invasive species into the system is near-certain (given the rate of introductions over the previous 50 years) without major policy and regulatory changes. However, the changes in Great Lakes fish communities are based on extrapolation from known fishery responses to projected responses to expected changing conditions in the basin. Moreover, many variables beyond water temperature and condition affect fisheries, not the least of which is the availability of forage fish. Higher water temperatures necessitate greater food intake, yet the forage base is changing rapidly in many parts of the Great Lakes basin, thus making the projected impact of climate change on fisheries difficult to discern with very high certainty. \r\n"^^xsd:string;

   a gcis:Finding .

## This finding cites the following entities:


<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/midwest/finding/exacerbation-of-risks-to-great-lakes>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/iugls-lakesuperior-2012>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/125c3ecf-fc2d-46dc-b42b-1d41cfb3ec46>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/midwest/finding/exacerbation-of-risks-to-great-lakes>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-preparingforachangingclimate-2000>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/233353d0-d709-45f6-a4e4-efd26022ea19>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/midwest/finding/exacerbation-of-risks-to-great-lakes>
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/2626b5ca-ec04-4e41-8405-9f582c779a7a>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/midwest/finding/exacerbation-of-risks-to-great-lakes>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/midwest-technical-input-report>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/45cdf25b-27f4-4153-9020-7b7bc5c25101>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/midwest/finding/exacerbation-of-risks-to-great-lakes>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1175/2011JCLI4066.1>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/5d9dedb4-4383-471f-9cee-05e0b16a457c>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/midwest/finding/exacerbation-of-risks-to-great-lakes>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1007/s10584-012-0560-z>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/6f54634b-9f91-4498-be28-49f1f6d5bf41>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/midwest/finding/exacerbation-of-risks-to-great-lakes>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/noaa-techreport-nesdis-142-3>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/95f2ea7d-12e3-4ed5-9247-7cf139db91a9>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/midwest/finding/exacerbation-of-risks-to-great-lakes>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/book/434135ed-eb50-4c46-9484-77563769e657>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/b228ac0d-7bf9-4391-99e7-5c598b9ce55e>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/midwest/finding/exacerbation-of-risks-to-great-lakes>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1016/j.jglr.2010.03.012>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/b564a9ad-4d9a-4fc3-98dd-62c94c3a76be>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/midwest/finding/exacerbation-of-risks-to-great-lakes>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1016/j.jglr.2011.09.006>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/ce73c556-914c-4bd1-b23c-98cea28fcfbd>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/midwest/finding/exacerbation-of-risks-to-great-lakes>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca2>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/e251f590-177e-4ba6-8ed1-6f68b5e54c8a>.