- Climate Change Impacts in the United States: The Third National Climate Assessment
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finding 21.4 : agricultures-technical-ability-to-adapt
While agriculture’s technical ability to adapt to changing conditions can offset some of the adverse impacts of a changing climate, there remain critical concerns for agriculture with respect to costs of adaptation, development of more climate resilient technologies and management, and availability and timing of water.
This finding is from chapter 21 of Climate Change Impacts in the United States: The Third National Climate Assessment.
Process for developing key messages: The authors and several dozen collaborators undertook a risk evaluation of the impacts of climate change in the Northwest that informed the development of the four key messages in this chapter (see also Ch. 26: Decision Support). This process considered the combination of impact likelihood and the consequences for the region’s economy, infrastructure, natural systems, human health, and the economically-important and climate sensitive regional agriculture sector (see Dalton et al. 2013a2135da9-c8b1-486f-9656-59d8a52b1975 for details). The qualitative comparative risk assessment underlying the key messages in the Northwest chapter was informed by the Northwest Regional Climate Risk Framing workshop (December 2, 2011, in Portland, OR). The workshop brought together stakeholders and scientists from a cross-section of sectors and jurisdictions within the region to discuss and rank the likelihood and consequences for key climate risks facing the Northwest region and previously identified in the Oregon Climate Change Adaptation Framework.7450bfd8-54cc-4c42-8058-7ae93f7692a5 The approach consisted of an initial qualitative likelihood assessment based on expert judgment and consequence ratings based on the conclusions of a group of experts and assessed for four categories: human health, economy, infrastructure, and natural systems.429802a3-633d-447c-874c-250ae4ee0003 This initial risk exercise was continued by the lead author team of the Northwest chapter, resulting in several white papers that were 1) condensed and synthesized into the Northwest chapter, and 2) expanded into a book-length report on Northwest impacts.a2135da9-c8b1-486f-9656-59d8a52b1975 The NCA Northwest chapter author team engaged in multiple technical discussions via regular teleconferences and two all-day meetings. These included careful review of the foundational technical input report429802a3-633d-447c-874c-250ae4ee0003 and approximately 80 additional technical inputs provided to the NCA by the public, as well additional published literature. They also drew heavily from two state climate assessment reports.219520b8-3d2e-40bf-8c39-fb51ded544d8 2ac1bce9-7e8e-41f5-a3ed-617646370b8c The author team identified potential regional impacts by 1) working forward from drivers of regional climate impacts (for example, changes in temperature, precipitation, sea level, ocean chemistry, and storms), and 2) working backward from affected regional sectors (for example, agriculture, natural systems, and energy). The team identified and ranked the relative consequences of each impact for the region’s economy, infrastructure, natural systems, and the health of Northwest residents. The likelihood of each impact was also qualitatively ranked, allowing identification of the impacts posing the highest risk, that is, likelihood × consequence, to the region as a whole. The key regionally consequential risks thus identified are those deriving from projected changes in streamflow timing (in particular, warming-related impacts in watersheds where snowmelt is an important contributor to flow); coastal consequences of the combined impact of sea level rise and other climate-related drivers; and changes in Northwest forest ecosystems. The Northwest chapter therefore focuses on the implications of these risks for Northwest water resources, key aquatic species, coastal systems, and forest ecosystems, as well as climate impacts on the regionally important, climate-sensitive agricultural sector. Each author produced a white paper synthesizing the findings in his/her sectoral area, and a number of key messages pertaining to climate impacts in that area. These syntheses were followed by expert deliberation of draft key messages by the authors wherein each key message was defended before the entire author team before this key message was selected for inclusion in the report. These discussions were supported by targeted consultation with additional experts by the lead author of each message, and they were based on criteria that help define “key vulnerabilities,” including likelihood of climate change and relative magnitude of its consequences for the region as a whole, including consequences for the region’s economy, human health, ecosystems, and infrastructure.429802a3-633d-447c-874c-250ae4ee0003 Though the risks evaluated were aggregated over the whole region, it was recognized that impacts, risks, and appropriate adaptive responses vary significantly in local settings. For all sectors, the focus on risks of importance to the region’s overall economy, ecology, built environment, and health is complemented, where space allows, by discussion of the local specificity of climate impacts, vulnerabilities and adaptive responses that results from the heterogeneity of Northwest physical conditions, ecosystems, human institutions and patterns of resource use.
Description of evidence base: Northwest agriculture’s sensitivity to climate change stems from its dependence on irrigation water, adequate temperatures, precipitation and growing seasons, and the sensitivity of crops to temperature extremes. Projected warming trends based on global climate models and emissions scenarios potentially increase temperature-related stress on annual and perennial crops in the summer months. Evidence for projected impacts of warming on crop yields consists primarily of published studies using crop models indicating increasing vulnerability with projected warming over 1975-2005 baselines. These models also project that thermal-stress-related losses in agricultural productivity will be offset or overcompensated by fertilization from accompanying increases in atmospheric CO2. These models have been developed for key commodities including wheat, apples, and potatoes. Longer term, to end of century, models project crop losses from temperature stress to exceed the benefits of CO2 fertilization. Evidence for the effects of warming on suitability of parts of the region for specific wine grape and tree fruit varieties are based on well-established and published climatic requirements for these varieties. Evidence for negative impacts of increased variability of precipitation on livestock productivity due to stress on range and pasture consists of a few economic studies in states near the region; relevance to Northwest needs to be established. Evidence for negative impacts of warming on dairy production in the region is based on a published study examining projected summer heat-stress on milk production. Evidence for reduction in available irrigation water is based on peer-reviewed publications and state and federal agency reports utilizing hydrological models and precipitation and snowpack projections. These are outlined in more detail in the traceable account for Key Message 1of this chapter. Increased demands for irrigation water with warming are based on cropping systems models and projected increases in acres cultivated. These projections, coupled with those for water supply, indicate that some areas will experience increased water shortages. Water rights records allow predictions of the users most vulnerable to the effects of these shortages. Projections for surface water flows include decreases in summer flow related to changes in snowpack dynamics and reductions in summer precipitation. Although these precipitation projections are less certain than those concerning temperatures, they indicate that water shortages for irrigation will be more frequent in some parts of the region, based especially on a Washington State Department of Ecology-sponsored report that considered the Columbia basin. Other evidence for these projected changes in water is itemized in Key Message 1 of this chapter. Evidence that agriculture has a high potential for autonomous adaptation to climate change, assuming adequate water availability, is inferred primarily from the wide range of production practices currently being used across the varied climates of the region.
New information and remaining uncertainties: New information and remaining uncertainties Although increasing temperatures can affect the distribution of certain pest, weed, and pathogen species, existing models are limited. Without more comprehensive studies, it is not possible to project changes in overall pressure from these organisms, so overall effects remain uncertain. Some species may be adversely affected by warming directly or through enhancement of their natural enemy base, while others become more serious threats. Uncertainty exists in models in how increasing temperatures will impact crop evapotranspiration, which affects future estimates of irrigation demand (Key Message 1 of this chapter). Shifting international market forces including commodity prices and input costs, adoption of new crops, which may have different heat tolerance or water requirements, and technological advances are difficult or impossible to project, but may have substantial effects on agriculture’s capacity to adapt to climate change. Estimates of changes in crop yields as a result of changing climate and CO2 are based on very few model simulations, so the uncertainty has not been well quantified.
Assessment of confidence based on evidence: Confidence is very high based on strong strength of evidence and high level of agreement among experts. See specifics under “description of evidence” above.
- The Washington Climate Change Impacts Assessment: Evaluating Washington's Future in a Changing Climate (219520b8)
- Oregon Climate Assessment Report (2ac1bce9)
- A Workshop in Risk-Based Framing of Climate Impacts in the Northwest: Implementing the National Climate Assessment Risk-Based Approach (429802a3)
- The Oregon Climate Change Adaptation Framework (7450bfd8)
- Climate Change in the Northwest: Implications for Our Landscapes, Waters, And Communities (a2135da9)
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