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@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix gcis: <http://data.globalchange.gov/gcis.owl#> .
@prefix cito: <http://purl.org/spar/cito/> .
@prefix biro: <http://purl.org/spar/biro/> .

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/oceans-marine-resources/finding/increased-ocean-temp-impacts>
   dcterms:identifier "increased-ocean-temp-impacts";
   gcis:findingNumber "24.1"^^xsd:string;
   gcis:findingStatement "The rise in ocean temperature over the last century will persist into the future, with continued large impacts on climate, ocean circulation, chemistry, and ecosystems."^^xsd:string;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/oceans-marine-resources>;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3>;

## Properties of the finding:
   gcis:findingProcess "A central component of the assessment process was the Oceans and Marine Resources Climate assessment workshop that was held January 23-24, 2012, at the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in Silver Spring, MD, and simultaneously, via web teleconference, at NOAA in Seattle, WA. In the workshop, nearly 30 participants took part in a series of scoping presentations and breakout sessions that began the process leading to a foundational Technical Input Report (TIR) entitled “Oceans and Marine Resources in a Changing Climate: Technical Input to the 2013 National Climate Assessment.” The report, consisting of nearly 220 pages of text organized into 7 sections with numerous subsections and more than 1200 references, was assembled by 122 authors representing governmental agencies, non-governmental organizations, tribes, and other entities. \r\nThe chapter author team engaged in multiple technical discussions via teleconferences that permitted a careful review of the foundational TIR and of approximately 25 additional technical inputs provided by the public, as well as the other published literature, and professional judgment. The chapter author team met at Conservation International in Arlington, VA on 3-4 May 2012 for expert deliberation of draft key messages by the authors, wherein each message was defended before the entire author team before the key message was selected for inclusion in the report. These discussions were supported by targeted consultation with additional experts by the lead author of each message to help define “key vulnerabilities.”"^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:descriptionOfEvidenceBase "The key message is supported by extensive evidence documented in Sections 2 and 3 of the Oceans Technical Input Report and in the additional technical inputs received as part of the Federal Register Notice solicitation for public input, as well as stakeholder engagement leading up to drafting the chapter. \r\nRelevant and recent peer-reviewed publications, including many others that are cited therein, describe evidence that ocean temperature has risen over the past century. This evidence base includes direct and indirect temperature measurements, paleoclimate records, and modeling results.\r\nThere are also many relevant and recent peer-reviewed publications describing changes in physical and chemical ocean properties that are underway due to climate change. \r\n"^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:assessmentOfConfidenceBasedOnEvidence "Confidence that the ocean is warming and acidifying, and that sea level is rising is very high. Changes in other physical and chemical properties such as ocean circulation, wave heights, oxygen minimums, and salinity are of medium confidence. For ecosystem changes, there is high confidence that these are occurring and will persist and likely grow in the future, though the details of these changes are highly geographically variable. "^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:newInformationAndRemainingUncertainties "Important new information since the last National Climate Assessment includes the latest update to a data set of ocean temperatures.\r\nThere is accumulating new information on all of these points with regard to physical and chemical changes in the ocean and resultant impacts on marine ecosystems. Both measurements and model results are continuing to sharpen the picture. \r\nA significant area of uncertainty remains with regard to the region-by-region impacts of warming, acidification, and associated changes in the oceans. Regional and local conditions mean that impacts will not be uniform around the U.S. coasts or internationally. Forecasting of regional changes is still an area of very active research, though the overall patterns for some features are now clear. \r\nLarge-scale and recurring climate phenomena (such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation) cause dramatic changes in biological productivity and ecosystem structure and make it difficult to discern climate-driven trends. \r\nCurrent time series of biological productivity are restricted to a handful of sites around the globe and to a few decades, and global, comprehensive satellite time series of ocean color are even shorter, beginning in 1997. Based on an analysis of different in situ datasets, one research group suggested a decline of 1% per year over the past century, but these findings may be an artifact of limited data and have been widely debated. However, the few in situ time series mostly indicate increases in biological productivity over the past 20 years, but with clear links to regional changes in climate. \r\n"^^xsd:string;

   a gcis:Finding .

## This finding cites the following entities:


<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/oceans-marine-resources/finding/increased-ocean-temp-impacts>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-ti-oceans-marine-2013>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/018aba6e-7bff-4124-ae9a-f2521e683bd1>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/oceans-marine-resources/finding/increased-ocean-temp-impacts>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/ipcc-ar4-wg1/chapter/ar4-wg1-chapter6>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/11dc1346-c458-4cf2-a3c1-f75b60c337cb>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/oceans-marine-resources/finding/increased-ocean-temp-impacts>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1029/2007JC004252>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/24efff6a-9043-44c0-b7a2-fc4ff2461576>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/oceans-marine-resources/finding/increased-ocean-temp-impacts>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1029/2008GL037155>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/88eb1d21-c245-468e-9508-33f3beebe215>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/oceans-marine-resources/finding/increased-ocean-temp-impacts>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1038/nature09268>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/973493c4-7e62-481c-91ce-abd7168bc05e>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/oceans-marine-resources/finding/increased-ocean-temp-impacts>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1029/2012GL051106>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/9f1fa4b6-2d4d-414a-8cee-4b6e589753bb>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/oceans-marine-resources/finding/increased-ocean-temp-impacts>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1073/pnas.0805721105>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/ade3fd09-603e-4fae-b252-1a4142392ea0>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/oceans-marine-resources/finding/increased-ocean-temp-impacts>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.5194/cp-6-723-2010>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/c0c83a69-2a4b-466b-825b-75104629014e>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/oceans-marine-resources/finding/increased-ocean-temp-impacts>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1146/annurev.marine.010908.163917>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/d17a7c52-86c2-4dfc-9328-d6e3df410daf>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/oceans-marine-resources/finding/increased-ocean-temp-impacts>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca2>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/e251f590-177e-4ba6-8ed1-6f68b5e54c8a>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/oceans-marine-resources/finding/increased-ocean-temp-impacts>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00113.1>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/ec529b7a-dce4-48fe-9a6c-e118ca810835>.