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@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix gcis: <http://data.globalchange.gov/gcis.owl#> .
@prefix cito: <http://purl.org/spar/cito/> .
@prefix biro: <http://purl.org/spar/biro/> .

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/southeast/finding/effects-of-increased-extreme-heat>
   dcterms:identifier "effects-of-increased-extreme-heat";
   gcis:findingNumber "17.2"^^xsd:string;
   gcis:findingStatement "Increasing temperatures and the associated increase in frequency, intensity, and duration of extreme heat events will affect public health, natural and built environments, energy, agriculture, and forestry."^^xsd:string;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/southeast>;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3>;

## Properties of the finding:
   gcis:findingProcess "A central component of the process was the Southeast Regional Climate Assessment Workshop that was held on September 26-27, 2011, in Atlanta, with approximately 75 attendees. This workshop began the process leading to a foundational Technical Input Report (TIR). That 344-page foundational “Southeast Region Technical Report to the National Climate Assessment” comprised 14 chapters from over 100 authors, including all levels of government, non-governmental organizations, and business. \r\nThe writing team held a 2-day meeting in April 2012 in Ft. Lauderdale, engaged in multiple teleconference and webinar technical discussions, which included careful review of the foundational TIR, nearly 60 additional technical inputs provided by the public, and other published literature and professional judgment. Discussions were followed by expert deliberation of draft key messages by the authors, and targeted consultation with additional experts by the Southeast chapter writing team and lead author of each key message."^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:descriptionOfEvidenceBase "The key message and supporting text summarize extensive evidence documented in the Southeast Technical Input Report. Technical inputs (57) on a wide range of topics were also received and reviewed as part of the Federal Register Notice solicitation for public input. \r\nNumerous peer-reviewed publications describe increasing hazards associated with heat events and rising temperatures for the Southeast. The authors of a report on the Southeast climate worked closely with the region’s state climatologists on both the climatology and projections for temperature and associated heat events. Evidence of rising temperatures and current impacts is based on an extensive set of field measurements. \r\nThere is considerable evidence of the effects of high air temperatures across a wide range of natural and managed systems in the Southeast. Increased temperatures affect human health and hospital admissions.\r\nRising water temperatures also increase risks of bacterial infection from eating Gulf Coast shellfish and increase algal blooms that have negative human health effects. There is also evidence that there will be an increase in favorable conditions for mosquitoes that carry diseases. Higher temperatures are detrimental to natural and urban environments, through increased wildfires in natural areas and managed forests and increased invasiveness of some non-native plants. High temperatures also contribute to more roadway damage and deformities of transportation infrastructure such as railroad tracks and bridges (Ch. 5: Transportation). In addition, high temperatures increase net energy demand and costs, placing more stress on electricity generating plants and distribution infrastructure.\r\nIncreasing temperatures in the Southeast cause more stresses on crop and livestock agricultural systems. Heat stress reduces dairy and livestock production and also reduces yields of various crops grown in this region (corn, soybean, peanuts, rice, and cotton).\r\n"^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:assessmentOfConfidenceBasedOnEvidence "Increasing Temperatures:\r\nThere is high confidence in documentation that projects increases in air temperatures (but not in the precise amount) and associated increases in the frequency, intensity, and duration of extreme heat events. Projections for increases in temperature are more certain in the Southeast than projections of changes in precipitation. \r\nImpacts of increasing temperatures: \r\nRising temperatures and the substantial increase in duration of high temperatures (for either the low [B1] or high [A2] emissions scenarios) above critical thresholds will have significant impacts on the population, agricultural industries, and ecosystems in the region. There is high confidence in documentation that increases in temperature in the Southeast will result in higher risks of negative impacts on human health, agricultural, and forest production; on natural systems; on the built environment; and on energy demand. There is lower confidence in the magnitude of these impacts, partly due to lack of information on how these systems will adapt (without human intervention) or be adapted (by people) to higher temperatures, and partly due to the limited knowledge base on the wide diversity that exists across this region in climates and human and natural systems."^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:newInformationAndRemainingUncertainties "Since 2007, studies on impacts of higher temperatures have increased in many areas. Most of the publications cited above concluded that increasing temperatures in the Southeast will result in negative impacts on human health, the natural and built environments, energy, agriculture, and forestry.\r\nA key issue (uncertainty) is the detailed mechanistic responses, including adaptive capacities and/or resilience, of natural and built environments, the public health system, energy systems, agriculture, and forests to increasing temperatures and extreme heat events. \r\nAnother uncertainty is how combinations of stresses, for example lack of water in addition to extreme heat, will affect outcomes. There is a need for more monitoring to document the extent and location of vulnerable areas (natural and human), and then research to assess how those impacts will affect productivity of key food and forest resources and human well-being. There is also a need for research that develops or identifies more resilient, adapted systems.\r\n"^^xsd:string;

   a gcis:Finding .

## This finding cites the following entities:


<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/southeast/finding/effects-of-increased-extreme-heat>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/niehs-climch-2010>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/0508d20d-b8a6-4cfa-b984-a357a3b837aa>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/southeast/finding/effects-of-increased-extreme-heat>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1097/JOM.0b013e318173e122>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/07b2dd38-4085-4184-a498-ec32526d710f>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/southeast/finding/effects-of-increased-extreme-heat>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)73803-X>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/0fd487bb-27ef-4b45-b7b0-5294ad11cfac>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/southeast/finding/effects-of-increased-extreme-heat>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/ccsp-sap-4_3-2008>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/190f2677-f5e4-4015-862e-71e982509814>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/southeast/finding/effects-of-increased-extreme-heat>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1136/oem.2008.041376>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/1a72beb2-f4a0-4db9-bac8-eac55cbf676d>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/southeast/finding/effects-of-increased-extreme-heat>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/sogroupstateforesters-fire-2005>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/1cba19cb-5a7a-4432-8311-70633478df81>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/southeast/finding/effects-of-increased-extreme-heat>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1016/j.foodres.2010.04.001>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/2b04b041-511c-4b3f-9e44-70d0cfae3052>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/southeast/finding/effects-of-increased-extreme-heat>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usfs-gtr-srs-178>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/329e8eea-66b4-4a0d-9a4d-f2be776943b0>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/southeast/finding/effects-of-increased-extreme-heat>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1186/1476-069X-7-S2-S4>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/3325ef64-347b-4c33-9289-9e05e905dcbe>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/southeast/finding/effects-of-increased-extreme-heat>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/pmid-20489680>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/443fddc1-9737-4c6a-8291-83508bfb9643>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/southeast/finding/effects-of-increased-extreme-heat>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1007/s007040070015>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/457227bf-a153-4910-bc43-f9de8b7dda8f>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/southeast/finding/effects-of-increased-extreme-heat>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/book/7951fbd8-5877-41aa-ae62-9da3eb56b5c5>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/4739fda9-9431-4cb3-8572-5f992fd61519>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/southeast/finding/effects-of-increased-extreme-heat>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1016/j.toxicon.2010.02.026>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/659613d7-c0e0-4f84-88b9-7e18e9815bab>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/southeast/finding/effects-of-increased-extreme-heat>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.5194/bgd-9-7853-2012>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/a1a14740-236c-46da-b10b-08e1b1df8519>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/southeast/finding/effects-of-increased-extreme-heat>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2008.00951.x>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/a3f38823-1fa8-4f49-bc35-9f76c724230e>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/southeast/finding/effects-of-increased-extreme-heat>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1146/annurev.publhealth.29.020907.090843>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/b00a1349-fb5f-4e2d-b1bc-cfceb0863de2>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/southeast/finding/effects-of-increased-extreme-heat>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/noaa-techreport-nesdis-142-2>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/b50d0bc7-8731-41e7-861c-b88b678f51d0>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/southeast/finding/effects-of-increased-extreme-heat>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1016/j.foodres.2010.07.003>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/bf92266b-c107-4d7c-9bbb-1e4a08fa0fc7>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/southeast/finding/effects-of-increased-extreme-heat>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1021/es803650w>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/c275ae44-75e4-4974-81ea-fe7119474ffb>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/southeast/finding/effects-of-increased-extreme-heat>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/fta-report-0001>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/c41596dd-67b3-460a-8e7c-5b9e5c2a986a>.