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@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix gcis: <http://data.globalchange.gov/gcis.owl#> .
@prefix cito: <http://purl.org/spar/cito/> .
@prefix biro: <http://purl.org/spar/biro/> .

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/tribal-indigenous-native-lands-resources/finding/increased-health-hazards-for-natives>
   dcterms:identifier "increased-health-hazards-for-natives";
   gcis:findingNumber "12.4"^^xsd:string;
   gcis:findingStatement "Alaska Native communities are increasingly exposed to health and livelihood hazards from increasing temperatures and thawing permafrost, which are damaging critical infrastructure, adding to other stressors on traditional lifestyles."^^xsd:string;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/tribal-indigenous-native-lands-resources>;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3>;

## Properties of the finding:
   gcis:findingProcess " A central component of the assessment process was participation by members of the Chapter Author Team in a number of climate change meetings attended by indigenous peoples and other interested parties, focusing on issues relevant to tribal and indigenous peoples. These meetings included:\nOklahoma Inter-Tribal Meeting on Climate Variability and Change held on December 12, 2011, at the National Weather Center, Norman, OK, attended by 73 people.\nIndigenous Knowledge and Education (IKE) Hui Climate Change and Indigenous Cultures forum held in January 2012 in Hawai‘i and attended by 36 people.\nAlaska Forum on the Environment held from February 6-10, 2012, at the Dena’ina Convention Center in Anchorage, Alaska, and attended by about 1400 people with approximately 30 to 60 people per session.\nStories of Change: Coastal Louisiana Tribal Communities’ Experiences of a Transforming Environment, a workshop held from January 22-27, 2012, in Pointe-au-Chein, Louisiana, and attended by 47 people.\nAmerican Indian Alaska Native Climate Change Working Group 2012 Spring Meeting held from April 23–24, 2012, at the Desert Diamond Hotel-Casino in Tucson, Arizona, and attended by 80 people."^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:descriptionOfEvidenceBase "The key message and supporting chapter text summarizes extensive evidence documented in more than 200 technical input reports on a wide range of topics that were received and reviewed as part of the Federal Register Notice solicitation for public input.\nGiven the evidence base and uncertainties, confidence is high that rising temperatures are thawing permafrost and that this thawing is expected to continue (Ch. 2: Our Changing Climate) Permafrost temperatures are increasing over Alaska and much of the Arctic. Regions of discontinuous permafrost (where annual average soil temperatures of already close to 32°F) are highly vulnerable to thaw (Ch. 2: Our Changing Climate).\nThere are also many relevant and recent peer-reviewed publications describing the impact of permafrost thaw on Alaska Native villages. Over 30 Native villages in Alaska are in need of relocation or are in the process of being moved. Recent work documents public health issues such as contamination of clean water for drinking and hygiene and food insecurity through thawing of ice cellars for subsistence food storage."^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:assessmentOfConfidenceBasedOnEvidence "Based on the evidence and remaining uncertainties, confidence is very high that Alaska Native communities are increasingly exposed to health and livelihood hazards from permafrost thawing and increasing temperatures, which are causing damage to roads, water supply and sanitation systems, homes, schools, ice cellars, and ice roads, and threatening traditional lifestyles."^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:newInformationAndRemainingUncertainties "Improved models and observational data (see Ch. 22: Alaska) confirmed many of the findings from the prior 2009 Alaska assessment chapter, which informed the 2009 National Climate Assessment.\nA key uncertainty is how indigenous peoples in Alaska will be able to sustain traditional subsistence life ways when their communities and settlements on the historical lands of their ancestors are collapsing due to permafrost thawing, flooding, and erosion combined with loss of shore-fast ice, sea level rise, and severe storms, especially along the coasts and rivers.\nAnother uncertainty is how indigenous communities can protect the health and welfare of the villagers from permafrost-thaw-caused public health issues of drinking water contamination, loss of traditional food storage, and potential food contamination.\nIt is uncertain how Native communities will be able to effectively relocate and maintain their culture, particularly because there are no institutional frameworks, legal authorities, or funding to implement relocation for communities forced to relocate."^^xsd:string;

   a gcis:Finding .

## This finding cites the following entities:


<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/tribal-indigenous-native-lands-resources/finding/increased-health-hazards-for-natives>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/generic/051de450-afe4-4697-8a28-b79ee056a722>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/0808ea70-a152-4f50-abda-90370beb3632>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/tribal-indigenous-native-lands-resources/finding/increased-health-hazards-for-natives>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1007/s10584-013-0735-2>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/0a6d16f1-2362-46a1-8bfa-622dc2a43268>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/tribal-indigenous-native-lands-resources/finding/increased-health-hazards-for-natives>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1038/ngeo1573>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/0e2a44dc-cf4a-490b-ab13-8f1b8faa3cb7>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/tribal-indigenous-native-lands-resources/finding/increased-health-hazards-for-natives>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/generic/f3cbb3bb-11c4-41d4-b75f-6de6d8a25600>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/2d423414-dc26-4edc-85e0-6f99bdc6283c>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/tribal-indigenous-native-lands-resources/finding/increased-health-hazards-for-natives>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/uoregon-climchrealities-2011>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/414daa6f-cc93-4e89-bf98-1ad404be7e21>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/tribal-indigenous-native-lands-resources/finding/increased-health-hazards-for-natives>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1007/s10584-013-0746-z>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/42269c56-1785-48ec-a81b-6eeb784de417>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/tribal-indigenous-native-lands-resources/finding/increased-health-hazards-for-natives>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/oklahoma-inter-tribal-2011>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/7fbb768c-d8cf-48a5-88b4-dddb6d254013>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/tribal-indigenous-native-lands-resources/finding/increased-health-hazards-for-natives>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/unesco-arctic-2009>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/9510288d-7aff-4db9-a0fd-e8ecf963dce9>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/tribal-indigenous-native-lands-resources/finding/increased-health-hazards-for-natives>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-primo-2012>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/a55e1352-b4c6-42f8-bafa-a920c9e1107b>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/tribal-indigenous-native-lands-resources/finding/increased-health-hazards-for-natives>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1007/s10584-013-0743-2>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/a70c5744-3f77-4829-bf40-803b0ea0a14a>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/tribal-indigenous-native-lands-resources/finding/increased-health-hazards-for-natives>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/coastal-louisiana-tribal-communities-stories-of-change-2012>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/bbc3c75e-6c21-4e60-8285-514cde885865>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/tribal-indigenous-native-lands-resources/finding/increased-health-hazards-for-natives>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.3402/gha.v2i0.2075>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/dcd0abc9-2ae2-4388-9c84-df049d049b0a>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/tribal-indigenous-native-lands-resources/finding/increased-health-hazards-for-natives>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca2>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/e251f590-177e-4ba6-8ed1-6f68b5e54c8a>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/tribal-indigenous-native-lands-resources/finding/increased-health-hazards-for-natives>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/uwash-initial-2011>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/f42333d8-7065-41ef-9494-f3cb7e925beb>.