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@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix gcis: <http://data.globalchange.gov/gcis.owl#> .
@prefix cito: <http://purl.org/spar/cito/> .
@prefix biro: <http://purl.org/spar/biro/> .

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/urban-systems-infrastructure-vulnerability/finding/infrastructure-service-disruptions>
   dcterms:identifier "infrastructure-service-disruptions";
   gcis:findingNumber "11.2"^^xsd:string;
   gcis:findingStatement "In urban settings, climate-related disruptions of services in one infrastructure system will almost always result in disruptions in one or more other infrastructure systems."^^xsd:string;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/urban-systems-infrastructure-vulnerability>;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3>;

## Properties of the finding:
   gcis:findingProcess "In developing key messages, the report author team engaged in multiple technical discussions via teleconference. A consensus process was used to determine the final set of key messages, which are supported by extensive evidence documented in two Technical Report Inputs to the National Climate Assessment on urban systems, infrastructure, and vulnerability: 1) Climate Change and Infrastructure, Urban Systems, and Vulnerabilities: Technical Report for the U.S. Department of Energy in Support of the National Climate Assessment , and 2) U.S. Cities and Climate Change: Urban, Infrastructure, and Vulnerability Issues . Other Technical Input reports (56) on a wide range of topics were also received and reviewed as part of the Federal Register Notice solicitation for public input. "^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:descriptionOfEvidenceBase "The interconnections among urban systems and infrastructures have been noted in the past, with recent work expanding on this principle to assess the risks this interconnectivity poses. One study explored the misconception of independent systems, and stressed instead the interactive and interdependent nature of systems. The effects of climate change on one system ultimately affect systems that are dependent upon it. One of the foundational Technical Input Reports examined the economic effects from climate change and how they will affect urban areas. Noted examples of this interconnectivity can be found in a number of publications concerning Hurricane Katrina, intense weather in New York City, and the vulnerability of U.S. oil refineries and electric power plants. "^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:assessmentOfConfidenceBasedOnEvidence "Given the evidence base and remaining uncertainties, confidence is very high that in urban settings, climate-related disruptions of services in one infrastructure system will almost always result in disruptions in one or more other infrastructure systems."^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:newInformationAndRemainingUncertainties "Recent work has delved deeper into the interconnectivity of urban systems and infrastructure, and has expressed the importance of understanding these interactions when adapting to climate change.\r\nThe extensive number of infrastructure assessments has resulted in system interdependencies and cascade effects being well documented. Therefore, the most significant uncertainties are associated with the rate and extent of potential climate change."^^xsd:string;

   a gcis:Finding .

## This finding cites the following entities:


<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/urban-systems-infrastructure-vulnerability/finding/infrastructure-service-disruptions>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-cities-2012>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/01b45a4a-2021-405d-a65b-2340e9ca9677>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/urban-systems-infrastructure-vulnerability/finding/infrastructure-service-disruptions>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/mta-aug82007sr>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/31a7ff37-2411-463b-a2ea-5752d0b29edc>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/urban-systems-infrastructure-vulnerability/finding/infrastructure-service-disruptions>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1073/pnas.1117622109>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/8a615831-3803-46e4-b6b2-b677bd3fdb4b>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/urban-systems-infrastructure-vulnerability/finding/infrastructure-service-disruptions>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/book/a9402ba6-1543-40b5-8a61-6bc556ae8375>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/996f4616-6ae6-4248-9351-f28215ac556c>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/urban-systems-infrastructure-vulnerability/finding/infrastructure-service-disruptions>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/prescom-report-1997>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/c96579ac-f2a9-4b9b-8604-596124508776>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/urban-systems-infrastructure-vulnerability/finding/infrastructure-service-disruptions>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1007/s10584-007-9252-5>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/df8dbdfc-912f-40b7-88a7-b3acbf026856>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/urban-systems-infrastructure-vulnerability/finding/infrastructure-service-disruptions>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1007/s11111-008-0072-y>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/e305f6dc-41e0-4c2f-9eeb-9e3ca69dcb98>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/urban-systems-infrastructure-vulnerability/finding/infrastructure-service-disruptions>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.05318.x>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/f041f900-42eb-4e0e-ba8b-284b731f2e4d>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/urban-systems-infrastructure-vulnerability/finding/infrastructure-service-disruptions>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/ornl-climchinfrastructure-2012>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/f0803451-5a89-474a-974f-99c13fdc725d>.