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finding 13.4 : key-message-13-4
Many emission sources of greenhouse gases also emit air pollutants that harm human health. Controlling these common emission sources would both mitigate climate change and have immediate benefits for air quality and human health. Because methane is both a greenhouse gas and an ozone precursor, reductions of methane emissions have the potential to simultaneously mitigate climate change and improve air quality. (Very Likely, Very High Confidence)
This finding is from chapter 13 of Impacts, Risks, and Adaptation in the United States: The Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume II.
Process for developing key messages:
Due to limited resources and requirements imposed by the Federal Advisory Committee Act, the decision was made that this chapter would be developed using an all-federal author team. The author team was selected based on expertise in climate change impacts on air quality; several of the chapter authors were authors of the “Air Quality Impacts” chapter of the U.S. Global Change Research Program’s (USGCRP) Climate and Health Assessment.5ec155e5-8b77-438f-afa9-fbcac4d27690 This chapter was developed through technical discussions of relevant evidence and expert deliberation by the report authors via weekly teleconferences and email exchanges. The authors considered inputs and comments submitted by the public; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and federal agencies.
Description of evidence base:
Decades of experience in air quality management have resulted in a detailed accounting of the largest emission sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and precursors of ozone and PM. The cost and effectiveness of emission control technologies for the largest emissions sources are well understood. By combining these emission and control technology data with energy system modeling tools, the potential to achieve benefits to air quality while mitigating GHG emissions under a range of scenarios has been quantified in numerous studies.
New information and remaining uncertainties:
A wide range of values have been reported for the magnitude of air quality co-benefits. Much of this variability can be attributed to differences in the mix of co-benefits included in the analysis and the time period under consideration. The largest sources of uncertainty are the cost paths of different energy technologies over time and the extent to which policy choices impact the evolution of these costs and the availability of different energy technologies.
Assessment of confidence based on evidence:
There is very high confidence that emissions of ozone and PM precursors could be reduced by reducing combustion sources of CO2. Reducing emissions of ozone and PM precursors would be very likely to reduce ozone and PM pollution, which would very likely result in fewer adverse health effects from air pollution. There is very high confidence that controlling methane emissions would also reduce ozone formation rates, which would also very likely lead to lower ozone levels.
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