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@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix gcis: <http://data.globalchange.gov/gcis.owl#> .
@prefix cito: <http://purl.org/spar/cito/> .
@prefix biro: <http://purl.org/spar/biro/> .

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/built-environment-urban-systems-and-cities/finding/key-message-11-1>
   dcterms:identifier "key-message-11-1";
   gcis:findingNumber "11.1"^^xsd:string;
   gcis:findingStatement "<p>The opportunities and resources in urban areas are critically important to the health and well-being of people who work, live, and visit there (<em>very high confidence</em>). Climate change can exacerbate existing challenges to urban quality of life, including social inequality, aging and deteriorating infrastructure, and stressed ecosystems (<em>high confidence</em>)<em>.</em> Many cities are engaging in creative problem solving to improve quality of life while simultaneously addressing climate change impacts (<em>medium confidence</em>).</p>"^^xsd:string;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/built-environment-urban-systems-and-cities>;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4>;

## Properties of the finding:
   gcis:findingProcess "<p>Report authors developed this chapter through technical discussions of relevant evidence and expert deliberation and through regular teleconferences, meetings, and email exchanges. For additional information on the overall report process, see <em><a href='/chapter/appendix-1'>App. 1: Process</a></em>. The author team evaluated scientific evidence from peer-reviewed literature, technical reports, and consultations with professional experts and the public via webinar and teleconferences. The scope of this chapter is urban climate change impacts, vulnerability, and response. It covers the built environment and infrastructure systems in the socioeconomic context of urban areas. This chapter updates findings from the Third National Climate Assessment and advances the understanding of previously identified urban impacts by including emerging literature on urban adaptation and emphasizing how urban social and ecological systems are related to the built environment and infrastructure. The five case-study cities were selected because they represent a geographic diversity of urban impacts from wildfire, sea level rise, heat, and inland flooding. The author team was selected based on their experiences and expertise in the urban sector. They bring a diversity of disciplinary perspectives and have a strong knowledge base for analyzing the complex ways that climate change affects the built environment, infrastructure, and urban systems.</p>"^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:descriptionOfEvidenceBase "<p>Urban areas provide resources and opportunities for residents’ quality of life.{{< tbib '145' 'f1f67e52-3ceb-47c9-8961-a6640d15a618' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '146' '5d6b00dd-dfee-4b0a-a11a-ab6ec4a6724d' >}} However, many cities face challenges to prosperity, including aging and deteriorating infrastructure,{{< tbib '13' '9115ee8c-84a2-43a3-96dc-09b6fcacc03f' >}} social inequalities,{{< tbib '9' 'd505cee1-e247-4ebc-a51a-88209666d77f' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '46' '0d9c1352-071a-4794-a468-8e01bf0876f1' >}} and lack of economic growth.{{< tbib '147' 'ce92fa43-b6a4-4f47-8a54-8d5d85212ab1' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '148' 'f7997d62-0d50-4ba1-b304-ff11b5d73e72' >}} These challenges play out differently depending on a city’s geographic location, economic history, urban development pattern, and governance. Studies link urban development with lower air,{{< tbib '15' '1536895c-080f-4958-9984-8200a89467a3' >}} water,{{< tbib '16' 'e7721b15-f7cb-4a65-a886-0268ab0fb699' >}} and soil{{< tbib '17' 'c9635569-e7c7-4820-b287-d12db9529476' >}} quality; altered microclimates (for example, urban heat islands);{{< tbib '149' '10ee76ca-2db3-429c-baf1-2ff5d1043407' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '150' '3e9b6eba-21a7-474e-9773-190a0ec18257' >}} increased risk of certain vector-borne diseases;{{< tbib '151' '87664884-f938-4d71-82a3-e918a98673e2' >}} and adverse effects on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning.{{< tbib '152' 'ff1fea07-c899-4e5f-aff2-76510d06c57b' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '153' 'bc3ad363-5a7c-4b6a-9ab9-c8f3477f416c' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '154' '7c940ebf-7e86-4421-b752-44af87504e32' >}} Exposure to temperature extremes,{{< tbib '155' '1aca1900-c64c-4624-a696-3aab59ba6673' >}} allergens,{{< tbib '156' '9f17954f-4786-482f-a8c9-1895709bd7a8' >}} and toxic substances{{< tbib '157' 'd6397bc1-e245-41fa-9e42-6f1744e59282' >}} and limited access to healthy food{{< tbib '10' 'c9bda474-d322-478c-8574-21d8dc7a4f5c' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '158' 'e767c1c1-94e1-4fd0-ba15-b350acefa691' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '159' '68f6abb6-10f5-4d3d-9201-e11a1aecc5c9' >}} and green space{{< tbib '11' 'ea8728bd-b961-4115-98d9-f834d50568ab' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '160' 'b4bad932-3201-4c5e-b52f-22556f558f85' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '161' '2aea16d3-6fcf-4d8a-8de8-fe4b316de0b4' >}} create environmental and social vulnerabilities for urban populations. Vulnerabilities are distributed unevenly within cities and reflect social inequalities related to differences in race, class, ethnicity, gender, health, and disability.{{< tbib '1' '5a79e12b-b65c-40ef-8f80-7bcb04d57a1d' >}} These populations of concern are at a greater risk of exposure to climate change and its impacts.<sup>{{< tbib '3' 'ce2db20d-ff1b-407c-873e-fde134a7929c' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '46' '0d9c1352-071a-4794-a468-8e01bf0876f1' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '123' '3a068e5f-0c2e-4a23-b533-1fc512482ab3' >}}</sup></p><p>Climate change combines with other trends to increase stress on the health and well-being of urban residents.{{< tbib '10' 'c9bda474-d322-478c-8574-21d8dc7a4f5c' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '46' '0d9c1352-071a-4794-a468-8e01bf0876f1' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '155' '1aca1900-c64c-4624-a696-3aab59ba6673' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '158' 'e767c1c1-94e1-4fd0-ba15-b350acefa691' >}} Research demonstrates that climate change can exacerbate many of the vulnerabilities described above. It raises temperatures, alters weather patterns, and increases the frequency and severity of extreme weather events, creating risks to urban ecosystems (such as urban tree cover),{{< tbib '162' 'bcf8379c-fedb-443a-a971-16fe922a3a27' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '163' '477c6e61-7962-4e01-9feb-e6f0f41f0d7e' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '164' 'e25ea9e7-07f8-4104-9ea0-b0d48ae82ee1' >}} infrastructure both above and below grade,{{< tbib '165' 'bf972224-c8ca-4c0b-82f0-ebb735ba04ce' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '166' 'a72701dd-9c86-40c3-bf56-5b75c25f4d0f' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '167' 'e3ac668b-0cd6-40c6-afb5-2df1600ca96c' >}} historic and cultural sites,{{< tbib '51' '83f70578-19a7-4a1c-a2af-92f1c28f5740' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '52' 'a9d3f75d-31a9-4b7b-b986-df4d46945cd5' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '164' 'e25ea9e7-07f8-4104-9ea0-b0d48ae82ee1' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '168' 'f41903c4-bc50-4c95-a0c0-54aaf4c51ad7' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '169' '54a0cbcb-449e-4a93-b84d-5a135504dc2d' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '170' 'c83c98ff-ea0e-47c9-9e83-55261c8ca24f' >}} and residents’ physical and mental health.{{< tbib '171' 'f360379a-fb12-46a0-aef4-a04ce55ddbed' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '172' '97e24319-c8e0-4103-a191-7b8a4047297a' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '173' 'd72623f9-1bb8-4f30-b89e-c5322edab9ff' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '174' '349d443c-b692-4b9d-8b1b-a22887a292a7' >}} Coupled with climate change, urban expansion increases the risk of infectious disease{{< tbib '175' 'c8a2bcc1-87dc-4937-97fd-557f09dd82a0' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '176' 'a031b362-5967-4b59-8b70-c09a4355716f' >}} and air quality problems from wildfires.{{< tbib '55' '95598d88-7aeb-43df-9e75-22aaed95747b' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '177' '7ef4f167-6123-4660-8d23-e50f7fa99dbc' >}}</p><p>Metropolitan areas often have more resources than rural ones, as reflected in income per capita, employment rates, and workforce education.{{< tbib '178' '96fca595-cfc0-4364-b138-51bd2cceb1b3' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '179' '6b1c3841-ec69-422b-904f-3bf05bff06e1' >}} Innovative urban problem solving that builds on these resources can take the form of policies and institutional collaborations,{{< tbib '58' 'c1323a14-9ac9-4070-a83f-91dd1dea9cb1' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '180' 'ba5cb012-f7fc-420f-924c-be2c0276aa86' >}} technologies,{{< tbib '145' 'f1f67e52-3ceb-47c9-8961-a6640d15a618' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '181' '79161ff1-6099-4c09-a5a6-e0a5a8b0c441' >}} eco- and nature-based solutions,{{< tbib '182' '16fc0eef-5efa-4b07-bdad-0d60d7b48af6' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '183' '3ea90c21-a2ee-4ca3-8b36-0e2296641ee5' >}} public–private partnerships,{{< tbib '59' '3c3cc09b-c2d7-4c52-bf8f-c064efa78e93' >}} social network and climate justice initiatives,{{< tbib '60' '8a4248ca-3d8c-4bdb-a28d-292a149733ba' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '184' '65e94984-6669-49e8-a41e-aff0cbdae813' >}} “smart” cities,{{< tbib '106' '57e3e16c-6b52-436a-ab26-3a19947f8dff' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '145' 'f1f67e52-3ceb-47c9-8961-a6640d15a618' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '181' '79161ff1-6099-4c09-a5a6-e0a5a8b0c441' >}} or a combination of approaches. However, cities vary greatly in their capacity to innovate for reasons related to size, staffing, and existing resources.</p>"^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:assessmentOfConfidenceBasedOnEvidence "<p>There is <em>very high confidence</em> that the opportunities and resources available in a particular urban area influence the health and well-being of its residents. There is <em>high confidence</em> that climate change exacerbates challenges to aging and deteriorating infrastructure, degrading urban ecosystems, and urban residents’ health and well-being. There is <em>medium confidence</em> that many cities are engaging in creative problem solving to address the challenges to quality of life posed by climate change. The effectiveness of this response depends on many factors (for example, intensity of extreme weather events, stakeholder collaboration, and internal and external resources available).</p>"^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:newInformationAndRemainingUncertainties "<p>It is difficult to predict future urban trends with certainty. Many factors influence the size and composition of urban populations, development patterns, social networks, cultural resources, and economic growth.{{< tbib '180' 'ba5cb012-f7fc-420f-924c-be2c0276aa86' >}} The degree to which climate change will exacerbate existing urban vulnerabilities depends in part on the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events,{{< tbib '145' 'f1f67e52-3ceb-47c9-8961-a6640d15a618' >}} which are projected with far less certainty than incremental changes in average conditions.{{< tbib '81' '31bf15ab-c374-4466-8b4c-894a527813cb' >}} Moreover, projections are not often made at the city scale.{{< tbib '185' '8be634e3-a62f-44d2-9cde-dd7010cdad04' >}} Climate change may accelerate urban tree growth, but overall effects on growing conditions depend on a variety of factors.{{< tbib '186' '2234e14a-bfd8-428d-9719-863108d36da8' >}} These uncertainties make it difficult to predict how climate change and other factors will intersect to affect urban quality of life. Furthermore, quality of life is difficult to measure, although some metrics are available.{{< tbib '187' '5b7e5de3-722a-4010-8d86-44e9722e3da9' >}}</p><p>Urban climate vulnerability depends on local social, political, demographic, environmental, and economic characteristics.{{< tbib '59' '3c3cc09b-c2d7-4c52-bf8f-c064efa78e93' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '110' '15c8ad4d-f96a-4bfb-8944-63d220e42f3b' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '145' 'f1f67e52-3ceb-47c9-8961-a6640d15a618' >}} Urban exposure to climate change depends on geographic factors (such as latitude, elevation, hydrology, distance from the coast).{{< tbib '145' 'f1f67e52-3ceb-47c9-8961-a6640d15a618' >}} Some places may be able to protect quality of life from minor climate stresses but not from extreme, though rare, events.{{< tbib '145' 'f1f67e52-3ceb-47c9-8961-a6640d15a618' >}} The speed and pace of innovative problem solving is difficult to predict, as is its effect on quality of life.{{< tbib '59' '3c3cc09b-c2d7-4c52-bf8f-c064efa78e93' >}}</p>"^^xsd:string;

   a gcis:Finding .

## This finding cites the following entities:


<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/built-environment-urban-systems-and-cities/finding/key-message-11-1>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1073/pnas.1614433114>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/0d9c1352-071a-4794-a468-8e01bf0876f1>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/built-environment-urban-systems-and-cities/finding/key-message-11-1>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1038/nature13462>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/10ee76ca-2db3-429c-baf1-2ff5d1043407>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/built-environment-urban-systems-and-cities/finding/key-message-11-1>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2015.03.008>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/1536895c-080f-4958-9984-8200a89467a3>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/built-environment-urban-systems-and-cities/finding/key-message-11-1>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-action-megacities-30>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/15c8ad4d-f96a-4bfb-8944-63d220e42f3b>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/built-environment-urban-systems-and-cities/finding/key-message-11-1>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/webpage/2a177c51-b456-4067-9eb2-8c2130031cd1>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/16fc0eef-5efa-4b07-bdad-0d60d7b48af6>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/built-environment-urban-systems-and-cities/finding/key-message-11-1>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1016/j.healthplace.2010.12.005>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/1aca1900-c64c-4624-a696-3aab59ba6673>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/built-environment-urban-systems-and-cities/finding/key-message-11-1>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1038/s41598-017-14831-w>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/2234e14a-bfd8-428d-9719-863108d36da8>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/built-environment-urban-systems-and-cities/finding/key-message-11-1>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1007/s11252-014-0427-3>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/2aea16d3-6fcf-4d8a-8de8-fe4b316de0b4>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/built-environment-urban-systems-and-cities/finding/key-message-11-1>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/adapting-infrastructure-civil-engineering-practice-changing-climate>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/31bf15ab-c374-4466-8b4c-894a527813cb>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/built-environment-urban-systems-and-cities/finding/key-message-11-1>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/mental-health-our-changing-climate-impacts-implications-guidance>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/349d443c-b692-4b9d-8b1b-a22887a292a7>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/built-environment-urban-systems-and-cities/finding/key-message-11-1>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1177/0739456x16645166>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/3a068e5f-0c2e-4a23-b533-1fc512482ab3>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/built-environment-urban-systems-and-cities/finding/key-message-11-1>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-adaptation-state-practice-us-communities>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/3c3cc09b-c2d7-4c52-bf8f-c064efa78e93>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/built-environment-urban-systems-and-cities/finding/key-message-11-1>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1016/j.uclim.2018.02.003>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/3e9b6eba-21a7-474e-9773-190a0ec18257>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/built-environment-urban-systems-and-cities/finding/key-message-11-1>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1007/s10980-013-9912-y>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/3ea90c21-a2ee-4ca3-8b36-0e2296641ee5>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/built-environment-urban-systems-and-cities/finding/key-message-11-1>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1016/j.ufug.2011.11.005>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/477c6e61-7962-4e01-9feb-e6f0f41f0d7e>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/built-environment-urban-systems-and-cities/finding/key-message-11-1>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/world-heritage-tourism-changing-climate>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/54a0cbcb-449e-4a93-b84d-5a135504dc2d>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/built-environment-urban-systems-and-cities/finding/key-message-11-1>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/information-communication-technologies-climate-change-adaptation-cities>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/57e3e16c-6b52-436a-ab26-3a19947f8dff>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/built-environment-urban-systems-and-cities/finding/key-message-11-1>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/urban-systems-infrastructure-vulnerability>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/5a79e12b-b65c-40ef-8f80-7bcb04d57a1d>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/built-environment-urban-systems-and-cities/finding/key-message-11-1>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1086/684573>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/5b7e5de3-722a-4010-8d86-44e9722e3da9>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/built-environment-urban-systems-and-cities/finding/key-message-11-1>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/webpage/3c065369-0068-4a72-b651-6670e2456bd2>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/5d6b00dd-dfee-4b0a-a11a-ab6ec4a6724d>.