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@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix gcis: <http://data.globalchange.gov/gcis.owl#> .
@prefix cito: <http://purl.org/spar/cito/> .
@prefix biro: <http://purl.org/spar/biro/> .

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/coastal-effects/finding/key-message-8-1>
   dcterms:identifier "key-message-8-1";
   gcis:findingNumber "8.1"^^xsd:string;
   gcis:findingStatement " <p>America’s trillion-dollar coastal property market and public infrastructure are threatened by the ongoing increase in the frequency, depth, and extent of tidal flooding due to sea level rise, with cascading impacts to the larger economy. Higher storm surges due to sea level rise and the increased probability of heavy precipitation events exacerbate the risk. Under a higher scenario (RCP8.5), many coastal communities will be transformed by the latter part of this century, and even under lower scenarios (RCP4.5 or RCP2.6), many individuals and communities will suffer financial impacts as chronic high tide flooding leads to higher costs and lower property values. Actions to plan for and adapt to more frequent, widespread, and severe coastal flooding would decrease direct losses and cascading economic impacts. (<em>Likely, High Confidence</em>)</p>"^^xsd:string;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/coastal-effects>;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4>;

## Properties of the finding:
   gcis:findingProcess "<p>The selection of the author team for the Coastal Effects chapter took into consideration the wide scope and relative sufficiency of the Third National Climate Assessment (NCA3) Coastal chapter. With input and guidance from the NCA4 Federal Steering Committee, the coordinating lead authors made the decision to convene an all-federal employee team with representation from key federal agencies with science, management, and policy expertise in climate-related coastal effects, and to focus the content of the chapter on Key Messages and themes that would both update the work conducted under NCA3 and introduce new themes. For additional information on the author team process and structure, refer to Appendix 1: Process.</p> <p>A central component of the assessment process was a chapter lead authors’ meeting held in Washington, DC, in May 2017. The Key Messages were initially developed at this meeting. Key vulnerabilities were operationally defined as those challenges that can fundamentally undermine the functioning of human and natural coastal systems. They arise when these systems are highly exposed and sensitive to climate change and (given present or potential future adaptive capacities) insufficiently prepared or able to respond. The vulnerabilities that the team decided to focus on were informed by a review of the existing literature and by ongoing interactions of the author team with coastal managers, planners, and stakeholders. In addition, the author team conducted a thorough review of the technical inputs and associated literature. Chapter development was supported by numerous chapter author technical discussions via teleconference from April to September 2017.</p>"^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:descriptionOfEvidenceBase "<p>Significant impacts to coastal communities, properties, infrastructure, and services are already occurring in low-lying areas of the country such as Miami Beach and Fort Lauderdale in Florida; Norfolk, Virginia; and Charleston, South Carolina.{{< tbib '61' '66ea5840-4fdb-457c-a206-5c09d331445c' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '125' '1a961dc6-30e7-44b6-80be-dc32ef761fe4' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '126' '5f4de85b-be39-4ffd-ac94-1950932c0140' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '127' '58862f49-f6d0-43bd-ac88-522a61696973' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '128' '048006a1-a72d-44a1-bdab-fff317c842f7' >}}</p> <p>Satellite and tide gauge data show that sea level rise (SLR) rates are increasing,{{< tbib '36' 'c66bf5a9-a6d7-4043-ad99-db0ae6ae562c' >}} and research has shown that this increase is driven by emissions that are warming the planet.{{< tbib '129' '94a8514e-063e-45ef-b893-11c82b49a597' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '130' 'a0130167-b319-493d-bedc-7cab8f8fe9d9' >}} The latest SLR science{{< tbib '7' 'd29e5080-da7b-41a3-a144-3a38225a0bd5' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '36' 'c66bf5a9-a6d7-4043-ad99-db0ae6ae562c' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '48' '3bae2310-7572-47e2-99a4-9e4276764934' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '52' '8e8cff98-5658-4597-8fb4-9088556acfae' >}} finds that even if RCP2.6 were achieved, it is <em>likely</em> that global mean sea level will rise by 1.5 feet by 2100; under RCP8.5, a rise of about 3 feet is within the <em>likely</em> range for 2100. Recent probabilistic studies and assessments of future SLR and rapid ice loss from Antarctica find that although a low probability, there is a possibility of upwards of 8 feet of rise by 2100 under a high-emission, extreme melt scenario.{{< tbib '36' 'c66bf5a9-a6d7-4043-ad99-db0ae6ae562c' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '37' '38924fa0-a0dd-44c9-a2a0-366ca610b280' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '49' 'ae82c8a3-3033-4103-91e9-926a27d1fa18' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '50' 'c748bd06-bc78-4b9c-b511-7dab1974211e' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '51' '825b2e35-d2cb-45d5-b52b-1beb4c9f0153' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '52' '8e8cff98-5658-4597-8fb4-9088556acfae' >}}</p> <p>Applying digital elevation models to determine the extent and number of communities and the amount of property and infrastructure that would be impacted by different amounts of SLR illustrates the magnitude of investments that are at risk.{{< tbib '56' '2db2b107-2e02-4f3a-b1e7-98301e28395d' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '57' '6e83fde3-5f98-4fd1-ae2c-d11aced414ac' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '126' '5f4de85b-be39-4ffd-ac94-1950932c0140' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '131' '0e427bc4-00fb-4c0f-af2d-c4ae9ac7feec' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '132' 'a05520ac-73d9-4939-8aa0-0587ec9bae09' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '133' '3a93b470-16dc-47ae-bf96-87558ce7eb35' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '134' 'bd3dbfa7-8dc4-4442-9cf2-14f583dc4a36' >}} These same analyses demonstrate the savings that could be achieved by lowering emissions. Finally, implementing adaptation measures to ensure that public infrastructure is resilient to current and future flood scenarios will be tremendously expensive. To date there are few economic sectoral models that quantify damages under alternative climate scenarios,{{< tbib '57' '6e83fde3-5f98-4fd1-ae2c-d11aced414ac' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '134' 'bd3dbfa7-8dc4-4442-9cf2-14f583dc4a36' >}} so additional modeling work would be useful.</p> <p>The importance of coastal economies and infrastructure to the overall national economy is well documented (for example, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s [NOAA] Economics: National Ocean Watch; NOAA port data), as are the economic ripple effects of impacts to property markets.{{< tbib '57' '6e83fde3-5f98-4fd1-ae2c-d11aced414ac' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '58' '741c98c3-07ef-468e-a9c8-0126361756f0' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '133' '3a93b470-16dc-47ae-bf96-87558ce7eb35' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '135' '021da15c-93a1-483a-9f2f-7e3d7f104b59' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '136' 'd307bcf3-8688-40c9-a5a7-240a567e3dfb' >}} Similarly, much has been written about how the National Flood Insurance Program has subsidized development in risky areas and how raising flood insurance rates to be actuarially sound could make it impossible for many coastal residents to afford flood insurance.{{< tbib '58' '741c98c3-07ef-468e-a9c8-0126361756f0' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '137' '3e49b758-3670-4137-ac4b-9093427fead9' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '138' '63f095eb-2a3d-4647-a14d-84160d60dbe6' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '139' 'f6b2dda9-0abf-40d8-baf6-aa461e1b2b3d' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '140' '32404d0b-928c-4338-9c1a-b14282cb9491' >}} The evidence for the economic savings provided by adaptation investments is still fairly limited but growing.{{< tbib '54' '1ce5a44f-53b3-42b8-92f1-e2ecf686c74f' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '57' '6e83fde3-5f98-4fd1-ae2c-d11aced414ac' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '59' '5b27123a-8c6d-4e85-bd48-841436fdf9eb' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '141' '5239d072-e6d2-4d86-baa3-f978a93c48e1' >}}</p> "^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:assessmentOfConfidenceBasedOnEvidence "<p>There is <em>very high confidence</em> that the frequency and extent of tidal flooding is already increasing and will continue to increase with SLR and that this flooding threatens the trillion-dollar coastal property market and public infrastructure. There is limited research using varied methods to quantify the direct and indirect economic impacts that will be experienced under different amounts of SLR. Nevertheless, there is a <em>high level of confidence</em> that these losses will be dramatic under SLR associated with the higher emission scenario (RCP8.5) and significant even under lower scenarios (RCP4.5 or RCP2.6), based on property values and geographic exposure to inundation. U.S. economic history provides strong evidence that extensive property market losses have the potential to impact businesses, personal wealth, and mortgage-related securities. Similarly, historic disaster events such as hurricanes and earthquakes provide a <em>very high level of confidence</em> that impacts to critical transportation and energy networks will harm the economy. Considering the uncertainty inherent in future human behavior and policy responses, including flood insurance policy, it is possible that individuals and institutions will act to reduce future flooding, to lessen the exposure and sensitivity of critical assets, and to create policies that assist individuals and businesses most impacted; hence, there is <em>medium confidence</em> that many coastal communities will be transformed by 2100 under any scenario and that many individuals will be financially devastated under lower emission scenarios (RCP4.5 or RCP2.6). Considering current exposure of assets and the latest SLR science, large economic losses in coastal regions that will generate cascading impacts to the overall economy of the United States are considered to be <em>likely.</em> The overall <em>high confidence</em> is the net result of considering the evidence base, the well-established accumulation of economic assets and activities in coastal areas, and the directional trend of sea level rise.</p> "^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:newInformationAndRemainingUncertainties "<p>The main source of uncertainty is in the magnitude of SLR that will occur and how it will vary across different regions, which depend in part on the amount and speed with which global society will reduce emissions. While global climate models and SLR models have improved since NCA3,{{< tbib '142' 'dd5b893d-4462-4bb3-9205-67b532919566' >}} uncertainty remains about exactly how much SLR will occur where and by when with different emissions levels. Even though there is uncertainty about the magnitude, the probabilistic approach to the SLR technical report to the Fourth National Climate Assessment,{{< tbib '36' 'c66bf5a9-a6d7-4043-ad99-db0ae6ae562c' >}} together with impacts already documented around the country from high tide flooding,{{< tbib '143' '33a582e6-f606-4e31-bb1f-6c3da8cfd45d' >}} gives us <em>high confidence</em> of the threat to coastal property and infrastructure. Adaptive responses to SLR risk and impacts, including individual action and public policy development, are also significant sources of uncertainty. For example, there is uncertainty about future development patterns in coastal regions, including both new development and migration inland, which has the potential to change the magnitude of coastal property and infrastructure at risk. The U.S.-specific research on potential migration away from the coast due to SLR and other climate impacts is very limited.{{< tbib '102' '2ddba35f-6036-4428-b4c7-800dd57b3313' >}}</p> <p>Future flood insurance policy is another specific source of uncertainty. Under the latest legislation (the Federal Emergency Management Agency’s Homeowner Flood Insurance Affordability Act{{< tbib '140' '32404d0b-928c-4338-9c1a-b14282cb9491' >}}), flood insurance rates are gradually rising; development of new policies related to affordability or to the requirement to carry flood insurance in order to have a federally backed mortgage could change behaviors.</p> <p>While figures for the economic value of certain sectors dependent on the ocean and Great Lakes are available through NOAA’s “Economics: National Ocean Watch,”{{< tbib '144' '2aa0aa30-d41d-4c09-8557-2cb1e40c3f7f' >}} similar information for the economic and social value of other sectors, such as real estate and insurance/reinsurance, would be beneficial for the audience of this assessment report, especially decision-makers.</p> "^^xsd:string;

   a gcis:Finding .

## This finding cites the following entities:


<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/coastal-effects/finding/key-message-8-1>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/webpage/41e86bad-1bfb-4f19-8314-3f59bc73006f>;
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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/coastal-effects/finding/key-message-8-1>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/state-us-nuisance-tidal-flooding-supplement-state-climate-national-overview-may-2016>;
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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/coastal-effects/finding/key-message-8-1>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/webpage/8fe8e1f7-d3f9-4c69-96e7-baf283bf01cb>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/0e427bc4-00fb-4c0f-af2d-c4ae9ac7feec>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/coastal-effects/finding/key-message-8-1>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/generic/5462cf92-c42b-4e79-9fa7-eefcfe5d2a5d>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/1a961dc6-30e7-44b6-80be-dc32ef761fe4>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/coastal-effects/finding/key-message-8-1>
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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/coastal-effects/finding/key-message-8-1>
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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/coastal-effects/finding/key-message-8-1>
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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/coastal-effects/finding/key-message-8-1>
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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/coastal-effects/finding/key-message-8-1>
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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/coastal-effects/finding/key-message-8-1>
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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/coastal-effects/finding/key-message-8-1>
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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/coastal-effects/finding/key-message-8-1>
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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/coastal-effects/finding/key-message-8-1>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1007/s10584-014-1304-z>;
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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/coastal-effects/finding/key-message-8-1>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1371/journal.pone.0170949>;
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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/coastal-effects/finding/key-message-8-1>
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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/coastal-effects/finding/key-message-8-1>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/generic/53d34750-eed7-4537-8c87-b823670602d6>;
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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/coastal-effects/finding/key-message-8-1>
   prov:wasDerivedFrom <https://data.globalchange.gov/scenario/rcp_4_5>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/coastal-effects/finding/key-message-8-1>
   prov:wasDerivedFrom <https://data.globalchange.gov/scenario/rcp_8_5>.