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@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix gcis: <http://data.globalchange.gov/gcis.owl#> .
@prefix cito: <http://purl.org/spar/cito/> .
@prefix biro: <http://purl.org/spar/biro/> .

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/midwest/finding/key-message-21-3>
   dcterms:identifier "key-message-21-3";
   gcis:findingNumber "21.3"^^xsd:string;
   gcis:findingStatement " <p>The ecosystems of the Midwest support a diverse array of native species and provide people with essential services such as water purification, flood control, resource provision, crop pollination, and recreational opportunities. Species and ecosystems, including the important freshwater resources of the Great Lakes, are typically most at risk when climate stressors, like temperature increases, interact with land-use change, habitat loss, pollution, nutrient inputs, and nonnative invasive species (<em>very likely, very high confidence</em>). Restoration of natural systems, increases in the use of green infrastructure, and targeted conservation efforts, especially of wetland systems, can help protect people and nature from climate change impacts (<em>likely, high confidence</em>).</p>"^^xsd:string;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/midwest>;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4>;

## Properties of the finding:
   gcis:findingProcess "<p>The chapter lead authors were identified in October 2016, and the author team was recruited in October and November 2016. Authors were selected for their interest and expertise in areas critical to the Midwest with an eye on diversity in expertise, level of experience, and gender. The writing team engaged in conference calls starting in December 2016, and calls continued on a regular basis to discuss technical and logistical issues related to the chapter. The Midwest chapter hosted an engagement workshop on March 1, 2017, with the hub in Chicago and satellite meetings in Iowa, Indiana, Michigan, and Wisconsin. The authors also considered other outreach with stakeholders, inputs provided in the public call for technical material, and incorporated the available recent scientific literature to write the chapter. Additional technical authors were added as needed to fill in the gaps in knowledge.</p> <p>Discussion amongst the team members, along with reference to the Third National Climate Assessment and conversations with stakeholders, led to the development of six Key Messages based on key economic activities, ecology, human health, and the vulnerability of communities. In addition, care was taken to consider the concerns of tribal nations in the northern states of the Midwest. The Great Lakes were singled out as a special case study based on the feedback of the engagement workshop and the interests of other regional and sector chapters.</p> <h3>Note on regional modeling uncertainties</h3> <p>Interaction between the lakes and the atmosphere in the Great Lakes region (e.g., through ice cover, evaporation rates, moisture transport, and modified pressure gradients) is crucial to simulating the region’s future climate (i.e., changes in lake levels or regional precipitation patterns).{{< tbib '315' 'fe83e7d3-3f29-4aef-81ae-28abd70dda2e' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '316' '94a4d51e-96a4-4155-926d-31be60e2206a' >}} Globally recognized modeling efforts (i.e., the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, or CMIP) do not include a realistic representation of the Great Lakes, simulating the influence of the lakes poorly or not at all.{{< tbib '192' '9db319af-7cec-440e-8dda-41526fed6cd0' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '198' '5295673e-703b-42f8-9792-4ccf8e3cf747' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '317' '03f91fdd-6d7d-431b-997b-91f63f52fe45' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '318' 'ee7f8311-bd00-4353-87a9-61ffb7813bf0' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '319' '1cd8ac44-e9d5-4a2e-ab8e-e48c8988bbc2' >}} Ongoing work to provide evaluation, analysis, and guidance for the Great Lakes region includes comparing this regional model data to commonly used global climate model data (CMIP) that are the basis of many products practitioners currently use (i.e., <a href='http://nca2014.globalchange.gov/'>NCA</a>, <a href='http://www.ipcc.ch/'>IPCC</a>, <a href='https://statesummaries.ncics.org/'>NOAA State Climate Summaries</a>). To address these challenges, a community of regional modeling experts are working to configure and utilize more sophisticated climate models that more accurately represent the Great Lakes’ lake–land–atmosphere system to enhance the understanding of uncertainty to inform better regional decision-making capacity (see <a href='http://glisa.umich.edu/projects/great-lakes-ensemble'>http://glisa.umich.edu/projects/great-lakes-ensemble</a> for more information).</p> "^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:descriptionOfEvidenceBase "<p>Changes in climate will very likely stress many species and ecological systems in the Midwest. As a result of increases in climate stressors, which typically interact with multiple other stressors, especially in the southern half of the Midwest region, both the ecological systems and the ecological services (water purification, pollination of crops and wild species, recreational opportunities, etc.) they provide to people are at risk. We draw from a wide range of national and global scale assessments of risks to biodiversity (e.g., Maclean and Wilson 2011, Pearson et al. 2014, and the review by Staudinger et al. 2013 that covered literature included in the Third National Climate Assessment{{< tbib '20' 'a0f111d8-ec32-486c-83a9-c9f359854550' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{< tbib '18' 'b0d94572-aa34-47e0-bddf-0a8e7e0c60bb' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{< tbib '22' '506759aa-765f-4007-a678-17d69d139e39' >}}), which all agree that on the whole, we are highly likely to see increases in species declines and extinctions as a result of climate change. It is very challenging to say specifically what combination of factors will drive these responses, but the weight of evidence suggests very high confidence in the overall trends. The link to interactions with other stressors is also very strong and is described in Brook et al. (2008){{< tbib '157' '5cee6e59-0713-4a56-abae-6f60119df8e5' >}} and Cahill et al. (2013),{{< tbib '17' '4da26e14-8c1a-4f66-8212-a98880263e91' >}} among others. Terrestrial ecosystem connectivity, thought to be important for the adaptive capacity of many species, is very low in the southern half of the Midwest region.{{< tbib '158' '3c96d70c-9523-49e8-b7aa-0a86be8992a0' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '159' '3e243243-eb72-4795-aeec-62d5d8326d4b' >}} This may limit the movement of species to more suitable habitats or for species from the southern United States to migrate into the Midwest. These connectivity/movement potential studies also support the idea that land-use change will constrain the potential for retaining function and overall diversity levels. The last section refers to the benefits of restoration as a mechanism for protecting people and nature from climate change impacts. While it is not possible to fully demonstrate that protection of people and nature is indeed occurring now from climate change impacts (we would need attribution of current floods, etc.), there is strong evidence that actions like restoring wetlands can reduce flooding impacts{{< tbib '182' '83cb3cb9-c2e7-4199-8bb4-b67cd8884512' >}} and that protecting forests protects water quality and supply.</p> "^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:assessmentOfConfidenceBasedOnEvidence "<p>In the Midwest, we already have seen very high levels of habitat loss and conversion, especially in grasslands, wetlands, and freshwater systems. This habitat degradation, in addition to the pervasive impacts of invasive species, pollution, water extraction, and lack of connectivity, all suggest that the adaptive capacity of species and systems is compromised relative to systems that are more intact and under less stress. Over time, this pervasive habitat loss and degradation has contributed to population declines, especially for wetland, prairie, and stream species. A reliance on cold surface-water systems, which often have compromised connectivity (due to dams, road-stream crossings with structures that impede stream flow, and other barriers) suggests that freshwater species, especially less mobile species like mussels, which are already rare, are at particular risk of declines and extinction. Due to the variety of life histories and climate sensitivities of species within the region, it is very challenging to specify what mechanisms will be most important in terms of driving change. However, knowing that drivers like invasive species, habitat loss, pollution, and hydrologic modifications promote species declines, it is <em>very likely</em> that the effects of climate change will interact, and we have <em>very high confidence</em> that these interactions will tend to increase, rather than decrease, stresses on species that are associated with these threats. While there is strong evidence that investments in restoring habitat can benefit species, we currently do not have strong observational evidence of the use of these new habitats, or benefits of restored wetlands, in response to isolated climate drivers. Thus, the confidence level for this statement is lower than for the first half of the message.</p> "^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:newInformationAndRemainingUncertainties "<p>There is significant uncertainty surrounding the ability of species and ecosystems to persist and thrive under climate change, and we expect to see many different types of responses (population increases, declines, local and regional extinctions).{{< tbib '17' '4da26e14-8c1a-4f66-8212-a98880263e91' >}} In some cases, climate change does have the potential to benefit species; for example, fish in the coldest regions of the Great Lakes (i.e., Lake Superior) are likely to show increases in productivity, at least in the short run.{{< tbib '332' '8a6a8c87-01dc-4370-a982-afe4207f1962' >}} However, as a whole, given the environmental context upon which climate change is operating, and the presence of many cold-adapted species that are close to the southern edge of their distributional range, we expect more declines than increases.</p> <p>The last section of the Key Message focuses on land protection and restoration—conservation strategies intended to reduce the impacts of land-use change. Many modeling studies have called out loss of habitat in the Midwest as a key barrier to both local survival and species movement in response to climate change (Schloss et al. 2012 and Carroll et al. 2015 are two of the most recent{{< tbib '158' '3c96d70c-9523-49e8-b7aa-0a86be8992a0' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{< tbib '158' '3c96d70c-9523-49e8-b7aa-0a86be8992a0' >}}). Restoring habitat can restore connectivity and protect key ecological functions like pollination services and water purification. Restoring wetlands also can help protect ecosystems and people from flooding, which is the rationale for the last line in the Key Message.</p> "^^xsd:string;

   a gcis:Finding .

## This finding cites the following entities:


<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/midwest/finding/key-message-21-3>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1002/2014JD022316>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/03f91fdd-6d7d-431b-997b-91f63f52fe45>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/midwest/finding/key-message-21-3>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.5194/gmd-8-1085-2015>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/1cd8ac44-e9d5-4a2e-ab8e-e48c8988bbc2>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/midwest/finding/key-message-21-3>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1073/pnas.1116791109>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/3c96d70c-9523-49e8-b7aa-0a86be8992a0>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/midwest/finding/key-message-21-3>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1371/journal.pone.0140486>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/3e243243-eb72-4795-aeec-62d5d8326d4b>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/midwest/finding/key-message-21-3>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1098/rspb.2012.1890>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/4da26e14-8c1a-4f66-8212-a98880263e91>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/midwest/finding/key-message-21-3>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1890/120272>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/506759aa-765f-4007-a678-17d69d139e39>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/midwest/finding/key-message-21-3>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1175/jcli-d-14-00847.1>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/5295673e-703b-42f8-9792-4ccf8e3cf747>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/midwest/finding/key-message-21-3>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1016/j.tree.2008.03.011>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/5cee6e59-0713-4a56-abae-6f60119df8e5>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/midwest/finding/key-message-21-3>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1080/19390459.2010.511451>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/83cb3cb9-c2e7-4199-8bb4-b67cd8884512>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/midwest/finding/key-message-21-3>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1371/journal.pone.0062279>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/8a6a8c87-01dc-4370-a982-afe4207f1962>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/midwest/finding/key-message-21-3>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1002/2013JD019994>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/94a4d51e-96a4-4155-926d-31be60e2206a>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/midwest/finding/key-message-21-3>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1007/s10584-016-1721-2>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/9db319af-7cec-440e-8dda-41526fed6cd0>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/midwest/finding/key-message-21-3>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1073/pnas.1017352108>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/a0f111d8-ec32-486c-83a9-c9f359854550>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/midwest/finding/key-message-21-3>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1038/nclimate2113>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/b0d94572-aa34-47e0-bddf-0a8e7e0c60bb>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/midwest/finding/key-message-21-3>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1007/s00704-015-1652-2>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/ee7f8311-bd00-4353-87a9-61ffb7813bf0>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/midwest/finding/key-message-21-3>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1016/j.wace.2015.10.005>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/fe83e7d3-3f29-4aef-81ae-28abd70dda2e>.



<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/midwest/finding/key-message-21-3>
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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/midwest/finding/key-message-21-3>
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