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@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix gcis: <http://data.globalchange.gov/gcis.owl#> .
@prefix cito: <http://purl.org/spar/cito/> .
@prefix biro: <http://purl.org/spar/biro/> .

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/tribal-and-indigenous-communities/finding/key-message-15-2>
   dcterms:identifier "key-message-15-2";
   gcis:findingNumber "15.2"^^xsd:string;
   gcis:findingStatement "<p>Indigenous health is based on interconnected social and ecological systems that are being disrupted by a changing climate (<em>high confidence</em>). As these changes continue, the health of individuals and communities will be uniquely challenged by climate impacts to lands, waters, foods, and other plant and animal species (<em>likely, high confidence</em>). These impacts threaten sites, practices, and relationships with cultural, spiritual, or ceremonial importance that are foundational to Indigenous peoples’ cultural heritages, identities, and physical and mental health (<em>high confidence</em>).</p>"^^xsd:string;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/tribal-and-indigenous-communities>;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4>;

## Properties of the finding:
   gcis:findingProcess "<p>The report authors developed this chapter through technical discussions of relevant evidence and expert deliberation via several meetings, teleconferences, and email exchanges between the spring of 2016 and June 2017. The authors considered inputs and comments submitted by the public in response to the U.S. Global Change Research Program’s (USGCRP) Federal Register Notices, as well as public input provided through regional engagement workshops and engagement webinars. The author team also considered comments provided by experts within federal agencies through a formal interagency review process.</p><p>Additional efforts to solicit input for the chapter were undertaken in 2016–2017. The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) worked with partners, the College of Menominee Nation, and the Salish Kootenai College to develop and execute an outreach plan for the chapter. This included awarding mini-grants for community meetings in the fall of 2016 and attending and presenting at tribally focused meetings such as the American Indian Higher Education Consortium 2016 Student Conference (March 2016), the Annual National Conference of the Native American Fish and Wildlife Society (May 2016), the National Tribal Forum on Air Quality (May 2016), the workshops of Rising Voices (2016, 2017), the Native Waters on Arid Lands Tribal Summit (November 2017), the BIA Tribal Providers Conference in Alaska (November 2017), and the Tribes &amp; First Nations Summit (December 2017), among others. Additionally, through these tribal partners, the BIA provided 28 travel scholarships to interested tribal partners to attend and comment on the initial draft content of all regional chapters at the USGCRP’s regional engagement workshops. Additional avenues to communicate during these formal open-comment periods included multiple webinars, website notices on the BIA Tribal Resilience Program page, and email notices through BIA and partner email lists. In particular, the BIA solicited comments from multiple tribal partners on the completeness of the online interactive version of the map in Figure 15.1. Chapter authors and collaborators also presented at interactive forums with tribal representatives, such as the National Adaptation Forum (2017), and in various webinars to extend awareness of formal requests for comment opportunities through the USGCRP and partners, such as the Pacific Northwest Tribal Climate Change Network. The feedback and reports from these activities were used to ensure that the Key Messages and supporting text included the most prominent topics and themes.</p>"^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:descriptionOfEvidenceBase "<p>Multiple epidemiological studies provide consistent and high-quality evidence that Indigenous peoples face health disparities according to conventional Western science approaches to assessing health risk; in general, Indigenous peoples have disproportionately higher rates of asthma,{{< tbib '90' '5a3ba94b-e83c-4f01-8156-d4b018006d0c' >}} cardiovascular disease,{{< tbib '91' 'f5751fe0-05cf-47eb-8e47-3d84a1949c76' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '92' '5328f11a-77d7-4f6c-88cc-5ca990872aad' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '93' '3497dde6-91ae-47d4-8d37-e97f0d71e1bb' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '94' '31eb5126-1705-4113-b686-f81617332d97' >}} Alzheimer’s disease or dementia,{{< tbib '95' 'ca4f6c75-7028-4bab-bc3c-c7b72ec1fa6c' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '96' '46555650-d3fb-4b36-b9e0-912e75dcab03' >}} diabetes,{{< tbib '97' '112e9785-ce7c-499c-9155-f7196017a0f5' >}} and obesity.{{< tbib '93' '3497dde6-91ae-47d4-8d37-e97f0d71e1bb' >}} There is also robust qualitative evidence that various social determinants of health affect Indigenous health disparities, including historical trauma,{{< tbib '88' '162dba04-6e69-43e0-8450-60e2279679f3' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '89' 'e9137b2c-1fbd-4e41-8493-6394a4b6f1cc' >}} institutional racism, living and working circumstances that increase exposure to health threats, and limited access to healthcare services.{{< tbib '87' 'c76d7935-9da3-4c4b-9186-86dc658bcc74' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '89' 'e9137b2c-1fbd-4e41-8493-6394a4b6f1cc' >}} A recent peer-reviewed scientific assessment of health concluded that these health disparities have direct linkages to increased vulnerability to climate change impacts from changes in the pollen season and allergenicity, air quality, and extreme weather events.{{< tbib '98' 'f1e633d5-070a-4a7d-935b-a2281a0c9cb6' >}}</p><p>Additionally, a number of qualitative studies consistently find that Indigenous health, adaptive capacity, and health disparities/environmental justice issues typically do not capture many of the key elements of health and resilience that are important to Indigenous populations, which include concepts related to community connection, natural resources security, cultural use, education and knowledge, self-determination, and autonomy.{{< tbib '81' '98957f73-e40a-4a1e-b48d-01108d939123' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '82' '719ba05e-ba19-43e4-ba3f-83d111809b59' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '83' 'b9a63264-fd0b-4b7e-a658-3c4d602b69c7' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '84' '171d2a1b-b2d1-46ee-b1c2-2e2999637552' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '85' '123baf63-1521-424b-9c14-f2827ad7ce18' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '86' '25a6aed4-2794-45bc-8211-03d093ddc35b' >}} Available qualitative evidence consistently identifies Indigenous peoples as having a unique and interconnected relationship with the natural environment and wildlife that is integral to their place-based social, cultural, and spiritual identity; intangible cultural heritage (traditions or living expressions transmitted and inherited through generations); and subsistence practices and livelihoods that foster intra- and intergenerational knowledge sharing and relationships.{{< tbib '29' '6848eec2-534b-4629-967c-53d8530089a3' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '44' '22ee4fef-966e-4fdd-ac3b-7503c4450956' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '61' '5eff7771-5f15-43c7-8a4c-4383cac47316' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '81' '98957f73-e40a-4a1e-b48d-01108d939123' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '82' '719ba05e-ba19-43e4-ba3f-83d111809b59' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '86' '25a6aed4-2794-45bc-8211-03d093ddc35b' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '87' 'c76d7935-9da3-4c4b-9186-86dc658bcc74' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '99' '2ae3020a-26d0-41c8-a079-f5d129f2e183' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '100' 'be534331-f6a0-4d55-97ee-7d164dd653b2' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '101' 'b8c76481-c90d-422c-a96e-c9a8995f4860' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '102' 'add63799-e9cd-410d-87df-803f9e9b35ea' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '103' 'ea0d9e2a-65cb-4752-9d83-418c38efa380' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '105' 'eac03a8d-a422-4973-bfcf-b4e04916cb81' >}} Climate impacts to lands, waters, foods, and other plant and animal species undermine these relationships, affect place-based cultural heritages and identities (including through damage to cultural heritage sites), may worsen historical trauma still experienced by many Indigenous peoples, and ultimately result in adverse mental health impacts.{{< tbib '86' '25a6aed4-2794-45bc-8211-03d093ddc35b' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '101' 'b8c76481-c90d-422c-a96e-c9a8995f4860' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '102' 'add63799-e9cd-410d-87df-803f9e9b35ea' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '106' 'f1601533-28d5-409b-83c4-2ff390596e71' >}} There is robust documentation of observed adverse climate change related impacts on culture and food security,{{< tbib '44' '22ee4fef-966e-4fdd-ac3b-7503c4450956' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '61' '5eff7771-5f15-43c7-8a4c-4383cac47316' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '99' '2ae3020a-26d0-41c8-a079-f5d129f2e183' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '103' 'ea0d9e2a-65cb-4752-9d83-418c38efa380' >}} physical health,{{< tbib '98' 'f1e633d5-070a-4a7d-935b-a2281a0c9cb6' >}} and mental health.{{< tbib '71' 'c1162288-6379-4b60-b573-d0f8482d8fa0' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '101' 'b8c76481-c90d-422c-a96e-c9a8995f4860' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '102' 'add63799-e9cd-410d-87df-803f9e9b35ea' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '104' '6b22a163-b918-48bf-993f-32e61712a455' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '107' 'f66b946f-c672-4a4b-8f71-1b05738e029e' >}}</p><p>The studies consistently conclude that these adverse impacts to culture,{{< tbib '61' '5eff7771-5f15-43c7-8a4c-4383cac47316' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '155' 'd642fb15-2aff-47da-9e99-355077803288' >}} food security,{{< tbib '61' '5eff7771-5f15-43c7-8a4c-4383cac47316' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '99' '2ae3020a-26d0-41c8-a079-f5d129f2e183' >}} and overall human health{{< tbib '98' 'f1e633d5-070a-4a7d-935b-a2281a0c9cb6' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '99' '2ae3020a-26d0-41c8-a079-f5d129f2e183' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '101' 'b8c76481-c90d-422c-a96e-c9a8995f4860' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '102' 'add63799-e9cd-410d-87df-803f9e9b35ea' >}} will continue under future projections of climate change, though methods for making these determinations vary, and there are limited quantitative or modeling results that are specific to Indigenous peoples in the United States.</p><p>There is consistent evidence from behavioral and public health research showing that responses to extreme heat serve as examples of climate change adaptation.{{< tbib '108' '99ab656c-36e4-4410-b5b3-7a6a360e6fa0' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '109' '749bdc28-1eb2-4833-b7a3-09ec2afa6907' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '110' '3a0fc24d-c88b-45b7-a805-1c722bfed64b' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '111' 'b942f09b-749a-47f0-8a95-afb35ccb9f15' >}} There are also multiple examples of tribal health vulnerability assessments that acknowledge the role of traditional subsistence species, or First Foods, as an essential aspect of health and tribal resilience.{{< tbib '60' '0648fd9b-f6d4-474b-a6a6-7a8db5f1e5ac' >}}<sup class='cm'>,</sup>{{<tbib '112' 'dcd99b11-6940-4ea4-9696-427c994262a0' >}} One example from the Republic of the Marshall Islands illustrates a community-led planning process that incorporates traditional knowledge, facilitates local self-determination, and supports climate adaptation, natural resource management, and community health goals.{{< tbib '85' '123baf63-1521-424b-9c14-f2827ad7ce18' >}}</p>"^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:assessmentOfConfidenceBasedOnEvidence "<p>Based on available evidence, the authors have <em>high confidence</em> that Indigenous health is based on interconnected social and ecological systems that are being disrupted by a changing climate. The authors have <em>high confidence</em> in the available evidence indicating that it is <em>likely</em> that future climate change will increase impacts to lands, waters, foods, and other plant and animal species and that Indigenous health will be uniquely challenged by these impacts. The authors have <em>high confidence,</em> based on the quality of available evidence, that the lands, waters, foods, and other natural resources and species are foundational to Indigenous peoples’ cultural heritages, identities, and physical and mental health due to their essential role in maintaining Indigenous peoples’ sites, practices, and relationships with cultural, spiritual, or ceremonial importance.</p>"^^xsd:string;
   
   gcis:newInformationAndRemainingUncertainties "<p>The literature currently lacks national-scale studies that quantify and/or monetize climate impacts on Indigenous health, either through traditional Western science health metrics or Indigenous values-based metrics and indicators of health. There are quantitative studies of specific health-relevant topics, such as climate impacts to air quality <em>(<a href='/chapter/13'>Ch. 13: Air Quality</a>)</em> or extreme heat <em>(<a href='/chapter/29'>Ch. 29: Mitigation</a>)</em>, but health impact models have not to date been used to model Indigenous population-specific climate impacts. Quantitative national studies of climate impacts may have general applicability to Indigenous peoples, but their overall utility in quantifying impacts to Indigenous peoples may be limited, because there is uncertainty regarding the extent to which appropriate extrapolations can be made between Indigenous and non-Indigenous contexts. In addition, none of the studies explicitly modeled the effects of climate adaptation actions and the extent to which such actions may reduce Indigenous vulnerabilities or projected future impacts.</p><p>Other uncertainties include characterizing future impacts and vulnerabilities in a shifting policy landscape, in which vulnerabilities can be either exacerbated or alleviated in part by policy or programmatic changes, such as a recognition of the non-physiological aspects of Indigenous health.</p>"^^xsd:string;

   a gcis:Finding .

## This finding cites the following entities:


<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/tribal-and-indigenous-communities/finding/key-message-15-2>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/climate-change-vulnerability-assessment>;
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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/tribal-and-indigenous-communities/finding/key-message-15-2>
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   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/112e9785-ce7c-499c-9155-f7196017a0f5>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/tribal-and-indigenous-communities/finding/key-message-15-2>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.3167/ares.2017.080104>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/123baf63-1521-424b-9c14-f2827ad7ce18>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/tribal-and-indigenous-communities/finding/key-message-15-2>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/article/10.1007/s12546-016-9159-y>;
   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/162dba04-6e69-43e0-8450-60e2279679f3>.

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/tribal-and-indigenous-communities/finding/key-message-15-2>
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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/tribal-and-indigenous-communities/finding/key-message-15-2>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/when-fish-come-we-go-fishing-local-ecological-knowledge-non-salmon-fish-used-subsistence-bering-strait-region>;
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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/tribal-and-indigenous-communities/finding/key-message-15-2>
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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/tribal-and-indigenous-communities/finding/key-message-15-2>
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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/tribal-and-indigenous-communities/finding/key-message-15-2>
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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/tribal-and-indigenous-communities/finding/key-message-15-2>
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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/tribal-and-indigenous-communities/finding/key-message-15-2>
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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/tribal-and-indigenous-communities/finding/key-message-15-2>
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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/tribal-and-indigenous-communities/finding/key-message-15-2>
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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/tribal-and-indigenous-communities/finding/key-message-15-2>
   cito:cites <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/usgcrp-climate-human-health-assessment-2016/chapter/mental-health-and-well-being>;
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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/tribal-and-indigenous-communities/finding/key-message-15-2>
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<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca4/chapter/tribal-and-indigenous-communities/finding/key-message-15-2>
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   biro:references <https://data.globalchange.gov/reference/98957f73-e40a-4a1e-b48d-01108d939123>.