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@prefix dcterms: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix gcis: <http://data.globalchange.gov/gcis.owl#> .
@prefix cito: <http://purl.org/spar/cito/> .
@prefix biro: <http://purl.org/spar/biro/> .

<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/second-state-carbon-cycle-report-soccr2-sustained-assessment-report/chapter/biogeochemical-effects-of-rising-atmospheric-carbon-dioxide/finding/key-message-17-1>
   dcterms:identifier "key-message-17-1";
   gcis:findingNumber "17.1"^^xsd:string;
   gcis:findingStatement "Rising carbon dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>) has decreased seawater pH at long-term observing stations around the world, including in the open ocean north of Oahu, Hawai‘i; near Alaska’s Aleutian Islands; on the Gulf of Maine shore; and on Gray’s Reef in the southeastern United States. This ocean acidification process has already affected some marine species and altered fundamental ecosystem processes, and further effects are likely (<em>high confidence, likely</em>)."^^xsd:string;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/second-state-carbon-cycle-report-soccr2-sustained-assessment-report/chapter/biogeochemical-effects-of-rising-atmospheric-carbon-dioxide>;
   gcis:isFindingOf <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/second-state-carbon-cycle-report-soccr2-sustained-assessment-report>;

## Properties of the finding:
   
   gcis:descriptionOfEvidenceBase "The atmospheric record indicates that both the ocean and land carbon sinks have increased as CO<sub>2</sub> has risen (Le Quéré et al., 2016). Modern-day ocean observations have confirmed that seawater pH is decreasing because of atmospheric CO<sub>2</sub> uptake (Feely et al., 2004, 2009; Gattuso et al., 2015; Orr et al., 2005). Time-series stations around North America (near Hawai‘i, Alaska, Washington, California, Georgia, and Maine) have documented decreased pH below preindustrial levels for some or all of the annual cycle (Sutton et al., 2016). Effects on marine life and fundamental ecosystem processes or characteristics, including calcification, biodiversity, growth rates, and nitrogen fixation, are reviewed in this chapter; they are documented in detail in Bijma et al. (2013), Bunse et al. (2016), Dupont et al. (2010), Fu et al. (2007, 2012), Hendriks and Duarte (2010), Hendriks et al. (2010), Hofmann et al. (2010), Hutchins et al. (2013), Kroeker et al. (2013), Meyer and Riebesell (2015), Riebesell and Tortell (2011), and Riebesell et al. (2007), among others. Future effects are projected by observational (Pespeni et al., 2013; Wootton et al., 2008), integrative (Boyd et al., 2014), and modeling (Dutkiewicz et al., 2015) studies."^^xsd:string;
   
   
   gcis:newInformationAndRemainingUncertainties "In most cases, observed biological effects have not been mechanistically attributed to pH or carbonate and bicarbonate ion concentration changes. Laboratory studies may not perfectly reproduce the responses of organisms in nature, where environments and drivers are more complex and numerous. Genetic, behavioral, and phenotypic plasticity (flexibility) have not been evaluated for most of the species investigated in laboratory studies."^^xsd:string;

   a gcis:Finding .

## This finding cites the following entities:



<https://data.globalchange.gov/report/second-state-carbon-cycle-report-soccr2-sustained-assessment-report/chapter/biogeochemical-effects-of-rising-atmospheric-carbon-dioxide/finding/key-message-17-1>
   prov:wasDerivedFrom <https://data.globalchange.gov/report/second-state-carbon-cycle-report-soccr2-sustained-assessment-report/chapter/preface/figure/figurep-4>.