Figure : chp18-figure-18-2

Evolution in the Complexity of Knowledge Production and User Participation

Figure 18.2

This figure appears in chapter 18 of the Second State of the Carbon Cycle Report (SOCCR2): A Sustained Assessment Report report.

On the vertical axis, the complexity of knowledge production increases from low (where production is predominately focused on increasing fundamental knowledge) to high (where production aims to help solve societal problems). On the horizontal axis, the complexity of user participation changes from low to high as users become increasingly active in the knowledge-creation process. Mode 1 represents the concept that societal benefits accrue because of the separation of science from society, where science is separated from society to maintain objectivity and credibility. Mode 2 organizes science production at increasing levels of interaction and integration across disciplines (from multidisciplinary to transdisciplinary) and across the science-society divide. In postnormal science, scientific knowledge alone is not enough to solve societal problems; therefore, interaction between producers and users of science across the sciencesociety interface entails specific involvement of stakeholders throughout the process. [Figure source: Redrawn from Kirchhoff et al., 2013, copyright Annual Reviews (, used with permission.]

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This figure was created on February 03, 2017.

This figure was submitted on February 11, 2019.

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